Contents Introduction: History of Women in the work field3 Statement of the problem: Do working mothers impact the mother-child relationship? 5 Data presentation and Analysis: the statistics of working women7 Conclusion9 Recommendations10 Bibliography11 Introduction: History of Women in the work field Over the past decade an extreme increase of the number of women who are engaging in the work field has come to past. Subsequent to early history and the history of the ancient civilization of man, it has been observed that women have been expected to play a secondary role in society, in which women are and were viewed as less valuable than men.
The role of women in society has been that of raising children, and household duties. Because of women’s desire of wanting to stand on their own two feet and to become self-reliant individuals and liberated and free from the roles society has put on them, women became increasingly interested in joining men in the workplace. The only thing that has remained clear throughout history is that women are not only striving to acquire independence and equality in everyday life, but also in the work force.
The problems that have in the past, and still are until this day, surrounding the issue of women in the workplace is plentiful. As a result of women not being afforded the same educational opportunities as men and also being stereotyped into specific job placed them at a disadvantage when it came to competing with men in the workplace for a long period of time. Influenced by strong gender bias discrimination is rampant in the workplace for women on so many levels. Since women became engaged in the workforce they have been paid way less than men for doing the same job.
Even though women in the workforce have had to jump many hurdles it is still apparent that they have made many great contributions in the workplace. The persistence and dogged determination of women has been the impetus for the enactment of laws to protect themselves and others in the workplace. The laws that have been enacted do not only deal with gender discrimination, but also discrimination based on marital status, pregnancy, race, disabilities, sexual preference, and age. Presently today women have the capability to break out from under the burden of gender roles that were placed forcibly on them by society for many, many decades.
The stereotyping of women has also affected them in the workplace; throughout history women have been the one who has had the role of housewife, nurturer, and mother. Women are thought to stay at home and to take care of the household and the children, along with that they have been expected to cook meals, do laundry, and to manage the children’s school activities. As a result of the women caring the title mother and nurturer as a primary role, those who went outside of that role and took a job in the workplace they were thought of as less of a woman, selfish, or a bad wife/mother.
Also attributed to their position in the home, women who sought careers outside of the household were given jobs that were meaningless, unimportant, or that met one or more stereotypes about women. Also, women were not thought of as being very intelligent nor have talents or abilities outside of the household, so achieving jobs in positions of leadership or management were not practical. Obviously, because of the change on the role of women throughout the decades and the infiltration of women into the workforce there has been a dynamic change in the family life.
Although this period of change has been permeated by determination, persistence, achievement, and struggle by which we have seen the progress of women in the workplace, however it is still clear that women in corporate America are not free from all impediments, they are still oppressed. Even in the twenty-first century women are still not quite treated like equals to men, especially when it comes to the area of equal pay, because female labor is seen as an inferior part of the workforce. Although this is not quite as seen as much as it was in previous decades it is still existent.
Over the years through trial and error it has been shown that women are just as qualified, if not better qualified than men at what they do. Statement of the problem: Do working mothers impact the mother-child relationship? Since women have infiltrated the workplace the structure of the typical nuclear family household has undergone some major changes. Because the mother, whom fulfilled the role of nurturer and caretaker, had shifted from the house to the workplace the father’s role in the household had to increase from the typical all-American idea of a husband/father.
Now the “wifely” duties have to be split amongst the parents for a healthy and functional household and relationship. Now let’s take a look at how a working mother may impact either negatively or positively the raising of children. Many studies have been conducted that have compared the children of employed and unemployed mothers on children, such as evidence of cognitive and socioemotional developments have not succeeded to find major differences.
The results of the studies show that the daughters of employed mothers have been found to have higher academic achievement, greater success in their career, more contemporary choices in career, and greater commitment to work; as compared to the studies of children in poverty (in both two-parent and single-mother families) found higher cognitive scores for children with employed mothers as well as higher scores on socioemotional developments. Also a few earlier studies show that the sons of employed mothers in the middle class exhibit signs of lower school performance and lower I. Q. cores during grade school years than full-time homemakers. It seems like in the studies that boys have more of a difficult time coping with a working mother, rather than females. In addition, previous research has also shown some social adjustment differences between children with employed and non-employed mother in sons. Results for sons have been quite mixed and vary with social class and also with how old the children were when they were tested. One finding from the 1970’s was that in the blue-collar class, sons of employed mothers did well academically but there was a strain in the father-son relationship.
This was interpreted as reflecting the more traditional gender-role attitudes in the blue collar class. The mother’s employment was seen as a sign that the father was an inadequate bread-winner, and if the fathers helped out with housework and child care, they resented it. We did not find this at all and it may reflect the change over the years in gender-role attitudes in the working-class. As time progresses the less stereotypical views become and the more popular nontraditional view become across class. However, girls with working have been shown to adjust and cope just fine with their mother working.
Girls with employed mothers were more likely than girls whose mothers were full-time homemakers to indicate that women as well as men could do the activities that are usually associated with men; that is, employed mothers’ daughters saw women as more competent in the traditionally male domain than the homemakers’ daughters did. This result held for girls in two-parent homes and girls in one-parent homes. On the other hand, in two-parent families, both sons and daughters of employed mothers felt that men could do the female activities, while those with full-time homemakers did not, but this was true only in two-parent families.
Subsequent analysis showed that the reason it was only found in two parent families is that, it was carried by the fact that, in the two parent families, fathers’ with employed wives were more active in traditionally female tasks and in child care. Twenty years ago, it would have seemed odd to give a speech on working mothers and not focus on it as a social problem, but there is little in research to suggest it is. The mother’s employment or non-employment does have effects on family and children alike, but very few of these effects are negative ones.
As a matter of fact , most seem positive like the higher academic outcomes for children, benefits in their behavioral conduct and social adjustment, and the higher sense of competence and effectiveness in daughters. On the whole, these research results suggest that most families accommodate to the mother’s employment and in doing so provide a family environment that works well. Data presentation and Analysis: the statistics of working women The unemployment rate for women 25 years of age and over based on education. Basically, the more education a woman acquires the more valuable that female is in the workforce and the more that female will be in high demand by employers. [pic] Labor force participation rates among mothers based on their child’s age. ? The data reveals that more women work when their children are between the ages of six to seventeen, this age is basically between grade school and high school ages. [pic] The participation rate of women in the work place based on race. ? This graph shows the work participation amongst women based on ethnicity.
Also it shows that Caucasian women have a higher percentage rate of employment than African- Americans, Asians, and Latinas. [pic] The major concerns of working women ? This graph shows some of the top concerns of working mothers in the workplace. Access to affordable daycare ranks as the top concern for mothers who are in the work field. [pic] Conclusion From researching and gathering data on working women of the U. S. A in the 21st century, I have concluded that women as a whole have made great strides and contributions in the workplace.
Women have faced many struggles and oppositions which they have overcome and are still overcoming until this day. Women who choose to be mothers and have a career take on a many obligations and responsibilities, not only for her work but for her household. There have been changes to the “traditional” nuclear family, as far as, the roles of the husband and the wife. However, none of these changes, in the majority of cases, have had ill side effects or have impacted the process of raising children or children who are already in the house.
In fact, working mothers have had a positive impact on young girls. Daughters of working mothers exhibit more self esteem, confidence, and a great work ethic. Boys, however, have a bit more of a difficult time adjusting, but not in a drastic negative way. Women have demonstrated that they have just as much, if not more, capability to do the same job a man does, if not the same but better. In conclusion, I fully support the idea of a working mother. Recommendations
The only recommendation that I have would be for women to keep achieving, to keep overcoming the obstacles that face them in the workplace. Women should aspire to achieve above and beyond excellence in the work place. We also need more women entrepreneurs to venture out and start businesses, and to bring new and improved ideas to the business world. Women should also appreciate how far of a journey that the female gender has been on. Women should never take obtaining an education for granted.
Bibliography • BPW Foundation, “Workingwomen Speak Out,” 2004. • U. S. Department of Labor, 2003. • BlackCareerWomen. com, “Facts about Professional Women,” 2003. • Feminist Majority, “Empowering Women in Philanthropy,” 1991.
• Information retrieved November 9, 2009, from http://www. womenemployed. org/. Copy righted 2009 • Excerpted from Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia. Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton’s NewMedia, Inc.
Information retrieved November 9,2009. http://www. wic. org/misc/history. htm • Source: U. S. Census Bureau Public Information Office. Information retrieved November 9,2009. From http://www. census. gov