INTRODUCTION: Plan and Schedule Development – | |Task Identification and Work Breakdown Structure | |The detailed guidelines and examples start on the following page | |What This Is | |First of a series of six templates for project plan and schedule development.
This guideline lists the process steps for developing a work | |break down structure that identifies all the tasks in the project’s work, the first step in creating a detailed project plan and schedule. | |Several Work Breakdown Structure examples are provided to demonstrate the results. | | | | | | | | | | | | |Content in this guideline was contributed by: | |ProjectConnections staff, IPSolutions – www. ipsassociates. com, and ICS Group www. icsgrp. om | | | |Why It’s Useful | |A key to successful project scheduling is to break down the project goals into tasks BEFORE you consider delivery dates, resource constraints,| |specific named resources, or task dependencies. This helps you to objectively identify all of the work necessary without subconsciously | |leaving out real work in order to fit date constraints. | |The WBS step helps accomplish the following key objectives: | |Develops an objective, rational view of the amount of work required | |Helps team grasp the skills required and amount of resources equired for the project | |Provides a clear framework for assigning to individuals a clear task definition and delegate the responsibility for completion | |
Lays a foundation for analyzing the task dependencies and for isolating and managing risks | |Lays a foundation for developing a bottom-up estimate for the project schedule | |Allows tradeoffs to be made consciously and with the proper consensus involved. | |How to Use It | |Review the process steps for creating a work breakdown structure starting on the next page. |Identify how team members will be involved in creating the WBS and educate them on their role. The primary objective is to get all of the team| |participants to contribute to the definition of the work. | |Determine an appropriate organization for your WBS and begin identifying major work efforts. See the detailed guidelines which begin on the | |following page for how your WBS can be organized. | |Break the top level of your WBS further into a hierarchical set of tasks. Use the guidelines starting on the next page for deciding how far | |your WBS must be broken down to ensure that you’ve defined enough detail for scheduling your project. |
This WBS information will feed the next step in the planning/scheduling process: Assigning resources to tasks. | The Guideline and Template Content for Creating a WBS Starts on the Following Page Plan and Schedule Development – (1) Task Identification and Work Breakdown Structure Overview of WBS Creation The WBS is the first step in developing a detailed work plan for the project. Task Identification and WBS Creation bridges from the early Scope definition to creation of a detailed project schedule. |1) Start with: The Scope | |Defines at the highest level what has to be done—what must be created and delivered to the project’s customers. | | | | | | |2) Create: The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) | |A top-down hierarchical description of the work required to produce what is called for in the Project Scope and achieve the | |mission, satisfy stakeholders | |Provides approach for ‘decomposing’ the work into measurable units, which allows easier and more accurate estimates of | |duration, needed resources, and time required | |Helps ensure that the scope is completely defined and the team has not forgotten any work. | |Allows breakdown of work to deliverables, activities, tasks that can be assigned to an owner. | | | | | |3) Based on the WBS, develop: The Project Schedule | |Created by adding resource assignments, task work effort and duration estimates, and dependencies to all tasks in the WBS. | | |
The Work Breakdown Process: From the Top Down Use the following top down approach to iteratively create your WBS: 1. First identify the major components of work to be accomplished. Identify 5-10 major work groups which primarily set up how the work is expected to be organized, to form the highest level or first level of the WBS. Choose this top level of your WBS to match your organizational and internal work methodology—the best way to organize the work for this project given the project complexity; how the work is spread across your organization; and how the work will be tracked and managed. Here are seven approaches. (ref: Effective Project Management, Wysoki et al, pg. 120) Noun-Type
Physical Decomposition – product building with summary approach Functional Decomposition – system functionality focus Verb-Type Design-Build-Test-Implement – methodology or lifecycle phase focus Objectives – senior management or customer focus on reporting to deliverables Others Geographical – coordination and communication focus across locations Business Function – focus on business process with integration complications Departmental – focus is on organizational control of one manager 2. Identify the next level of work (Level 2) under each major component and list them under their top-level groups. This can be done with indented lists or graphically in an organization chart. Level 1 Level 2-1 Level 2-2
Level 3-1 Level 3-2 Level 3-3 Indented List Graphical Chart 3. Continue to break down the work under each Level 2 items. Break down to the level of task detail that ensures the top-level components are broken down far enough for identification of all the work that needs to get done. Details under some may break into three or four levels. Others may require no more detail, or only one additional level. Write preliminary plans if necessary to help scope the later cross-functional efforts: documentation, manufacturing, testing, etc. Examples and Definitions of Typical WBS Levels This section contains material contributed by ICS Group www. icsgrp. com
The following is one possible work breakdown approach starting with project lifecycle phases at Level 1, major deliverables of each phase as Level 2, and the activities, then tasks, to create each deliverable as levels 3 and 4. |Phases |Identify major phases of work (e. g. specify, design, build, test…) | |Major Project Deliverables and related |Identify the major component deliverables of work required (e. g. , subsystems that must be | |milestones |designed, built, tested, during each phase. ) | |Activities |Identify the activities needed to create those deliverables. Some interim, smaller deliverables | | |such as documents may be involved. ) | |Tasks |Break the activities down to an appropriate level of task detail. | Level 1 – Phases: A project plan, or schedule, is made up of the deliverables and milestones of the project, and depending on the level of detail required, the activities/tasks. Typically, this information can be organized into a number of natural groupings. In project planning, each group is called a phase and a name is given to it for ease of communication and reporting.
Level 2 – Deliverables & Milestones: Deliverables are the clearly defined and recognizable results or tangible work products of successfully completed activities/tasks performed during the project. They appear on a project plan in the past tense, to represent the completed activity/task and the accomplished result. “Receivables” should also appear on the project plan. They are deliverables owed to the project by others outside of the project (usually other project teams), and upon which the project is dependent. Milestones are interim events or points in time during the project which identify the completion of a significant segment. They are most useful as measuring or tracking points to gauge the progress of the project.
Some milestones are “business-critical” milestones, in that they are not just a mechanism for giving the team interim targets; they have special significance, such as a contractual date with a customer. Different individuals may identify different numbers of milestones based on their role in the project. For example, the project sponsor may identify three significant milestones as indicators of how the project is progressing, whereas a team leader may identify eight milestones or checkpoints within a particular phase. A milestone should be identified to indicate the completion of each phase of the project. Levels 3 and 4+ – Activities & Tasks: Each phase of a project is composed of a number of major activities that will lead to achieving one or more deliverables.
Activities are composed of a series of tasks that are the lowest level of detail that can comfortably be managed. Team members who will be performing the tasks should be involved in the activity/task planning process. Estimates of time to complete each task should be based on typical work effort required and then may be adjusted to reflect “real world” conditions. How to Engage the Team in Creating the WBS This is a team process and should not be done by the Project Manager alone. Plan to engage the project team to analyze and break down the work into a sequence of deliverables, activities, and tasks until the detail defines a manageable project. Here is a suggested process: 1) The Project Manager can propose what the top level of the WBS should be. ) Call a core team meeting to review the suggested top level of the WBS and define the next level of detail. In the meeting, agree on the top level of the WBS and brainstorm a list of items to include at Level 2 (e. g. deliverables that would show up for each major Phase. ) 3) Work collaboratively to identify subsequent levels of WBS detail, by drafting WBS activities and tasks onto a whiteboard or flipchart paper on the walls, or by writing deliverables, activities, and tasks on sticky notes and sticking them to the whiteboard or wall underneath the appropriate top level section of the WBS. 4) Publish the draft WBS to team members and others to sanity check the contents, and identify additional work.
Ultimately the WBS should take into account information from: ? other team members ? other project managers who have done similar work ? previous project reviews ? other appropriate groups ? expert opinion ? existing WBS templates 5) Get the feedback and incorporate it into the WBS 6) Review the updated WBS with the team and determine whether you’re ready to proceed to the next step of Planning: assigning resources to the tasks in the WBS. How Far to Go: How Much Detail is Enough |The ultimate goal in breaking the work tasks down is to ensure that all of the work that is needed to meet the project’s objectives is | |recognized and planned for accurately from the beginning. |
The level to which you break down elements of your WBS may result in some tasks having less detail and longer duration, if the work in that area is clearly understood and represents well-known work in which the team is experienced and successful. ? One owner per task: The tasks must be defined such that they can be assigned to one person who will be doing that work. ? Clear measurable deliverable with measurement specified: The tasks must be defined such that the task owner can be given completion criteria that are clear and measurable. ? Small enough task duration for tracking: Task duration at lowest level should be less than 5% of total project time, to ensure visibility into task progress, at a small enough resolution to recognize quickly if the project is off track (e. g. weeks if 1 year; 2 days if 2 months). Greater levels of detail are generally required for projects which are: ? larger ? more risky ? dissimilar to past projects ? difficult to define (susceptible to change) ? performed by internal work groups ? planned for the near future See the WBS completion checklist on the following page.
The WBS will continue to be updated during the Plan and Schedule development process; generally as the process goes forward, additional tasks come to light and must be incorporated into the WBS. The checklist below will help the team know that a WBS has been created that forms a sound basis for the project’s schedule going forward. WBS Completion Checklist | |Appropriate level of detail: Continue to break the work down until a task list is developed which meets the following criteria: | |one (and only one) owner can be assigned to each of the lowest level tasks | |clearly defined outputs are evident for each task | |quality can be monitored through performance criteria associated with each output | |the tasks communicate the work to be accomplished to the person who is accountable | |the likelihood that a task is mitted or work flow forgotten is minimized | |each task is well enough defined and small enough so that estimates of duration are credible | |the project is broken down to the level at which you want to track | |as a general rule, the lowest level tasks should have durations between two and twenty days and effort that equates to not more than 1 person | |week | | | |No forgotten tasks: Project delays are often caused by forgotten tasks, rather than inaccurate estimates.
Ensure you have included tasks for: | |planning the project | |approval cycles | |key project meetings | |management/customer interfaces | |quality inspections/fixing defects | |training | |management | |test planning, development & execution | |project reviews and project closing | See the following pages for several examples of Work Breakdown Structures WBS Examples The following WBS examples illustrate using the top-down breakdown approach for several different project types. Example 1: WBS for Building a House (Indented List Format) ref : Effective Project Management, Wysoki et al, Pg. 120) I. SITE PREPARATION A. Layout B. Grading C. Excavation II. FOUNDATION A. Erect Forms B. Pour Concrete C. Remove Forms Ill. FRAMING A. Floor Joists 1. Install first-floor floor joists 2. Install second-floor floor joists B. Sub-flooring 1 Install first-floor sub-flooring 2. Install second-floor sub-flooring C. Stud Walls 1. Erect first-floor stud walls 2. Erect second-floor stud walls D. Frame Roof IV. UTILITIES A. Electrical 1. Rough In 2. Building inspection 3. Finish work B. Plumbing 1. Rough in 2. Building inspection 3. Finish work C. Gas 1. Rough in 2. Building inspection 3. Finish work V. WALLS A. Hang sheetrock B.
Tape and bed VI. ROOFING A. Install sheathing B. Lay shingles VII. FINISH WORK A. Interior 1. Install cabinets 2. Install appliances 3. Install furnace 4. Lay carpet 5. Paint walls and molding 6. Hang wallpaper 7. Lay tile VIII. LANDSCAPING Example 2: WBS Excerpt for Creating a Promotional DVD |CONCEPT (Phase) | |(Detailed deliverables and tasks here) | |DESIGN (Phase) | |(Detailed deliverables and tasks here) | This section of the WBS broken out to activity/task detail: PROTOTYPE AND TEST (Phase) | |DVD Prototype (Deliverable) | |Develop Video (Activity) | |Shoot sections (Task) | |Review and update (Task) | |Edit video sections (Task) | |Edit video – full sequence (Task) | |Develop Narrative (Activity) | |Write narrative text (Task) | |Review and update (Task) | |Record voice-over narrative (Task) | |Review prototype DVD | |Update prototype DVD | |Test DVD | |(Detailed tasks go here) | |SELECT VENDOR (Phase) | |DVD Fulfillment Vendor commitment (Deliverable) | |Research options | |Define selection criteria | |Send requirements to fulfillment houses | |Get quotes and sample contracts | |Decide fulfillment house | |Sign contract | |
PRODUCE AND SEND (Phase) | |DVD Mailing (Deliverable) | |Send master to fulfillment house (Task) | |QA test DVD copy (Task) | |OK initial DVD production run (Task) | |Supply/approve mail-to list (Task) | |OK full DVD mailing (Task) | Example 3: WBS Excerpt – Hardware-Software System Development – to Level 3 Activities Phase II: Development | |Module 1 | |Detailed Design | |Review | |Create prototype | |Unit Test | |Module 2 | |Detailed Design | |Review | |Create prototype | |Unit Test | |Module n | |Detailed Design | |Review | |Create prototype | |Unit Test | |Integration Test | |Manufacturing planning | |User Documentation development | |Test Planning | |Final Design Review and Release | |Phase III: Approval | |Alpha Test | |Beta Test | |Regulatory Certification | |Phase IV: Delivery | |Pilot build | |Preparation for Release | |Release to Production/Delivery | | | See also a number of Work Breakdown Structure example files on the site. Example 4: Website Development WBS Website Project 1. Design 1. Web User Interface 1. Functional Specifications 1. Create User Interface Mock-ups 2. Conduct Design Review 3. Deliver Final Functional Specs 4. Obtain User Signoff 2. Technical Specifications 1. Develop Tech Specs 2. Review Tech Specs with Project Team 3. Obtain Team Signoff 2. SQL Database 1. Technical Specifications 1. Develop Tech Specs 2. Review Tech Specs with Project Team 3. Obtain Team Signoff 3. Interfaces 1. Technical Specifications 1.
Determine data import/export elements 1. Define User needs 2. Define IT needs 2. Design interfaces 3. Obtain Team Signoff 4. Reports 1. Functional Specifications 1. Collect User Requirements 1. Define Data elements 2. Define Frequency 3. Define Audience 2. Design Reports 3. Review Report Design with Project Team 4. Deliver Final Functional Specs 5. Obtain User Signoff 2. Development 1. Web Front End 1. Code Web Pages 2. Conduct Unit Test 3. Review Web Page design/functionality 4. Obtain User Signoff 2. SQL Database 1. Identify table relationships 2. Build database tables 3. Review Tables with project team 4. Obtain Signoff 3. Interfaces 1. Build Interfaces 2.
Conduct Unit test of import/export functionality 3. Obtain Signoff 4. Reports 1. Code Reports 2. Conduct Unit test 3. Review Reports with project team 4. Obtain Signoff Continued next page Example 4: Website Development WBS (continued) 3. Quality Assurance 1. Web Front End 1. Verify design and functionality 2. Perform Integration Test 3. Perform User Acceptance Test 4. Obtain User Signoff 2. SQL Database 1. Verify design/data elements 2. Verify relationships 3. Perform Integration Test 4. Perform User Acceptance Test 5. Obtain User Signoff 3. Interfaces 1. Verify design and functionality 2. Perform Integration Test 3. Perform User Acceptance Test 4.
Obtain User Signoff 4. Reports 1. Verify design and functionality 2. Perform Integration Test 3. Perform User Acceptance Test 4. Obtain User Signoff 4. Training 1. Create system documentation 1. Assemble Tech Specs 2. Develop System Flowcharts 3. Deliver Source Code 4. Complete System Documentation manual 2. Create training materials 1. Assemble Functional Specs 2. Develop “As Is” and “To Be” documentation 3. Update Business Processes 1. Write new business processes 2. Obtain User Signoff 4. Complete User Training Manuals 3. Train users 1. Train IT Support Staff 1. Identify trainees 2. Identify trainers 3. Construct training schedule 4.
Train users 2. Train Business Partners 1. Identify trainees 2. Identify trainers 3. Construct training schedule 4. Train users 5. Verify user readiness Continued next page Example 4: Website Development WBS (continued) 5. Implementation 1. Hardware 1. Determine hardware needs 2. Make Hardware selections 3. Purchase hardware 4. Deploy 5. Perform System test 6. Verify production readiness and signoff 2. Packaged Software 1. Determine software needs 2. Make software selections 3. Purchase software 4. Deploy 5. Perform System Test 6. Verify production readiness 3. Develop Implementation Plan 1. Construct Timeline 2. Identify Team 3. Identify Components 4.
Finalize Plan 4. Installation 1. Convert hardware to production-ready status 2. Convert packaged software to production ready status 3. Install new programs into production environment 4. Verify code 5. Initiate limited production run for user acceptance 6. Turn over system to users 6. Post-Implementation 1. Verify System 1. Obtain user acceptance of production system 2. Log issues 2. Monitor system 1. Verify performance 2. Verify functionality 3. Project Wrap-up 1. Obtain Final Project Signoff 2. Document and Review Lessons Learned ———————– Project Scope Level 1 Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3