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THE ADVENT OF EUROPEAN DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST FERDINAND MAGELLAN * A Portuguese explorer who is known as the first circumnavigator of the Earth. * Born in 1480 at Saborosa/Sabrosa in Villa Real, Province of Traz os Montes, Portugal. * His first stint as a maritime explorer began in 1505 when he offered his services to be a part of Francisco d’Almeida’s expedition. * Ferdinand Magellan renounced his citizenship and offered his services to the King of Spain. TREATY OF TORDESILLAS * The division of the world was ordered by Pope Alexander VI as a result of the unending “sea rivalry” between Portugal and Spain. Important provisions of the treaty: * At a distance of 370 degrees west of the Cape Verde Islands, the treaty provided an imaginary line drawn from north to south. All lands that will be discovered east of this imaginary line would be owned by Portugal and those on the west would belong to Spain. *

If Spain discovers lands that are within the demarcation line of Portugal, they should be turned over to the latter. On the other hand, if Portugal discovered lands that are not within their demarcation line, they should be turned over to Spain. Pope Alexander VI, being a Spaniard, ordered that no Portuguese ships shall be sent to lands belonging to Spain even for the purpose of trade and commerce. FERDINAND MAGELLAN’S SHIPS TRINIDAD * Flagship of the expedition * Commanded by Ferdinand Magellan CONCEPCION * Commanded by Gaspar de Quesada VICTORIA * Commanded by Luis de Mendoza SANTIAGO * Commanded by Juan Serrano SAN ANTONIO * Commanded by Juan de Cartagena FERDINAND MAGELLAN’S EXPEDITION First Event * Magellan was given hundreds of Spanish crews to help him fulfill his expedition goals.

They heard Mass in the Church of Santa Lucia de la Victoria (Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana) and the captain of his ships as well as their crews took an oath of allegiance to Magellan as their commander-in-chief. Second Event * On September 20, 1519, Ferdinand Magellan and the rest of his men began their expedition. The ships sailed down from Quadalquivir River to San Lucar de Barrameda. After two months of difficult voyage, hardship, and hunger, the expedition reached what is now Pernambuco in Brazil. From here, Magellan continued his voyage to Rio de Janeiro and reached Rio de la Plata in February, 1520.

Third Event * A mutiny was staged by Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, namely Quesada (Concepcion ship), Mendoza (Victoria ship), and Cartagena (San Antonio ship). Magellan managed to stop their attempt to take control of the whole expedition and eventually punished the perpetrators of the mutiny. Fourth Event * The Santiago was totally wrecked due to the extreme condition and vastness of the Pacific Ocean. On October 21, 1520, a strait was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan presently called the Strait of Magellan. Fifth Event * In March, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan reached the Ladrones Islands.

They spent some time to rest and procure fresh food and water. Ladrones means “thieves” in Spanish. THE REDISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES * On March 17, 1521, Magellan and his men saw the mountains of what is now called Samar (Agoncillo and Mangahas, 2010). * Magellan and his men made their first landfall on a Philippine island called Homonhon on March 18, 1521. * They continued their navigation and reached the islet of Limasawa. It was governed by Rajah Kulambu. * Magellan and Rajah Kulambu secured a relationship and eventually sealed their friendship through a blood compact called the sanduguan on March 29, 1521. The first mass in the Philippines was celebrated on March 31, 1521 on the coast of Limasawa which was officiated by Fr. Pedro de Valderrama. * Magellan, together with Rajah Kulambu, reached the island of Cebu on April 7, 1521. Rajah Humabon (ruler of Cebu) accepted Ferdinand Magellan in his island. * Rajah Humabon’s Christian name was Carlos, in honor of the King of Spain (Charles/Carlos). His wife Hara Amihan was baptized under the name of Juana, in honor of King Charles’ mother (Johanna). * Ferdinand Magellan gave Juana an image of the Infant Jesus as a gift for her baptism. THE BATTLE OF MACTAN Conflict between the two rajahs sparked the famous Battle of Mactan. It was a conflict between Rajah Sula and Rajah Lapu-Lapu, both from Mactan Island. * While Magellan was in Cebu, Rajah Sula went there and asked for Magellan’s help to wage a war against Rajah Lapu-Lapu. * From Cebu, he sailed for Mactan with 1,000 Cebuano warriors and 60 Spaniards. * Rajah Lapu-Lapu outnumbered Magellan’s force. He was also killed by Rajah Lapu-Lapu’s men. SIGNIFICANCE OF MAGELLAN’S EXPEDITION * It proved that the Earth is round. * It also pioneered the use of the sea route rather than the land route. The voyagers realized how vast the Pacific Ocean was. * The beauty and richness of the Philippines captured the interest and attention of the European colonizers. VILLALOBOS EXPEDITION * Headed by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos *

His expedition started on November 1, 1542 and reached Mindanao three months later. * Villalobos ordered his men to plant corn in order to avoid starvation. However, the crop failed to feed them so Villalobos sent Bernardo de la Torre to Tandaya to get some food. * As a sign of gratitude, he named the islands Samar and Leyte Felipinas in honor of Prince Philip of Spain. Villalobos left the Philippines and sailed for the Moluccas Island but was captured by the Portuguese sailors. LEGAZPI EXPEDITION * Headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi * The expedition was comprised of four ships and 380 crews. * Legazpi started to sail on November 21, 1564 at the Mexican port. He reached Cebu in February of 1565. * After reaching Cebu, Legazpi went to Cibabao (Leyte) then to Samar. Legazpi sealed his friendship with some of the local chieftains in that area through a blood compact. THE PHILIPPINES UNDER SPANISH COLONIAL RULE – PART I Reduccion System * A territory under the immediate political control of a state. A colony is divided into province, pueblo, barangay. * A province is composed of a number of pueblos. * A pueblo is composed of a number of barangays. Central Government * The power comes from the King of Spain. * The representative of the King of Spain in the Philippines is the Spanish Governor-General. *

Two branches: Executive Controlled by the Spanish Governor-General. Judiciary Controlled by the Real/Royal Audiencia, lower court, and the Spanish Governor-General. * There was no legislative branch of government under the Spanish occupation because all laws came from Spain through royal decrees. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1502-1572) – First Spanish Governor-General in the Philippines. Governor-General * Implement all the directives and orders of the King of Spain. * Serve as the chief of the Spanish army to the Philippines. * Manage and command the Spanish army to protect the colony. * Appoint and remove government officials. * Manage and control any government office. * Implement and execute justice; pardoning power. * The most powerful political official in the Philippines during the Spanish occupation. * Representative of the King of Spain as the head of the colonial government. His tenure of power depends on the confidence of the Spanish Crown. * His executive power is absolute; on the other hand, his judicial and legislative powers are limited. Real/Royal Audiencia * This refers to the highest court of justice in the Philippines during the Spanish occupation. * This is equivalent to the Supreme Court of the Philippines. * It was established in 1584 (Manila). * Santiago de Vera – first president * It was mandated to interpret all laws. * It had the authority to solve cases pertaining to human rights violation. * It was tasked to audit all the expenses of the colonial government. It also had a legislative function. The Real/Royal Audiencia had the power, together with the Governor-General, to enact laws known as the Autos Acordados. Encomienda *

This involved the land, the crops that can be found in it, and the people living on it. * The encomienda system was an old practice in Spain wherein the King, in an effort to recognize the good deeds, services, and loyalty of his officers and men awarded a piece of land. * Those who received the encomiendas were called encomienderos. Functions of Encomiendero * Protect the people from any kind of attacks organized by armed groups. Take care of the general welfare of the people. * Maintain peace and order within his encomienda. * Help the Spanish missionaries spread the teachings of Christianity to the indigenous people. * Collect taxes from the people living within his encomienda. Local Government Provincial Government * The type of local government which replaced the encomienda system. * Occupied the largest unit of the local government. * Two types: alcadia and corregimiento alcadia *

These were provinces whose inhabitants had accepted the Spanish rule; “peaceful” * Ruled and governed by alcalde mayor lcalde mayor * Performed executive and judicial functions. * He was appointed by the Spanish Governor-General * He was mandated by the Spanish Governor-General to enforce laws in his provinces and collect taxes. * He had the power to dispense justice. * He was given the privilege to engage in trade * “Indulto de comercio” was granted as a privilege because this position received only a small salary. * However, this privilege was abused and subsequently was abolished in 1844. * In 1886, the executive function was also stripped from the alcalde mayor because of reported abuses of power. With this, the executive function was transferred to the civil governor. corregimiento * These were provinces whose inhabitants had resistance to Spanish rule. * Also known as political-military districts. *

Ruled and governed by corregidor. Municipal Government * Each pueblo/town was ruled and controlled by gobernadorcillo, also called as capitan * Chief enforcer of the law and tax collector of his town. * The highest government position given to a Filipino native provided that he/she is a part of the group called principalia * Had a one-year term. * He had the responsibility to manage infrastructure (i. . roads and bridges) construction in his town. * He also had the function to maintain peace and order within his town. City Government * Also called as ayuntamiento * Requirements * Strategically located and commercially and politically important * Center of commerce, politics, faith, and culture * The first city to be created was Cebu in 1565. It was established by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. * The second city founded by Legazpi was Manila in 1571. * Governed by two mayors, 12 councilors, one chief of police, and one secretary. Barangay/Barrio *

Barangay – the smallest unit of government Governed by former datus * Datus = cabeza de barangay * This position was hereditary in the beginning, but later became an appointive and elective office. * He can also serve for one year. * His main duty was to collect taxes or tributes within his jurisdiction. * He was tasked to manage and keep the census of his barrio mates. * Cabeza de barangays did not receive any salary and yet they were responsible to turn in 100% collection of taxes. Residencia and Visita * It was a process to check if there were abuses of powers committed by the Spanish government officials. It deterred government officials from committing abuses and injuring the rights of others. Residencia * It was conducted by the incoming Spanish Governor-General. * The result of the investigation shall be sent to Spain for further evaluation and report. Visita * The investigation was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general. * The visitador-general was sent from Spain and might come anytime within the official’s term, without any previous notice.

THE PHILIPPINES UNDER SPANISH COLONIAL RULE – PART II The Tribute * It was officially introduced in 1570. Church tribute = sanctorum * Filipinos between 16 to 60 years of age were entitled to be taxed in cash or in kind. * Payment of taxes is tantamount to the impression that an individual recognized the power of the King of Spain. Other Taxes * Diezmos prediales – a kind of tax that was comprised of one-tenth of the produce of the land * Donativo de Zamboanga – a kind of tax that was introduced in 1635 in order to invade Jolo, Sulu * Vinta – a kind of tax that was paid by the people of Luzon The Bandala System * The Filipinos became the vassals of Spain. This refers to the obligation of Filipino farmers to sell their products to the government at a minimum price. * The abuses were reported to the King of Spain and it was eventually abolished in 1782 in order to avoid revolution from the Filipino farmers. Polo y Servicios * It is a form of forced labor. * Filipino men who were 16 to 60 years of age had the obligation to render community service in the span of 40 days. * The title of Filipino men who underwent polo is polistas. * One could be exempted from polo by paying the falla. Kasama System hacienda Large land estates that were owned by the Spanish friars

Inquilino – group of people who took care of the friars’ haciendas * poor relatives of the inquilinos * tilled and cleaned the land GALLEON TRADE * The Spanish government authorities supervised and managed all its trade operations. * High ranking officials of the State, Spanish friars, crew of the galleons were only allowed to engage in this trade. * In order to maximize profit, the King of Spain imposed monetary restrictions on trade. * The Galleon Trade also served as a means of transportation of the following: * Funds from the King of Spain * Directive/orders of the King of Spain Spanish passengers such as friars, government officials, and travelers/tourists from Mexico and Spain Boleta * A ticket entitling an ordinary trader to engage in the galleon trade. *

A boleta was normally issued to the Governor-General, clergy, members of the Real/Royal Audiencia and their friends, and to the widows of Spanish officials. * It can be sold to anyone at a higher price. * Obras Pias are funds that came from the donations to the Church. The Tobacco Monopoly * It was established by Governor-General Basco on March 1, 1782 . * Its main purpose was to boost up the government’s revenues. Under this monopoly, the provinces like Cagayan Valley, Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, and Marinduque were mandated by the government to plant tobacco in their agricultural lands. * This was successful in increasing government revenues. * This also paved the way for the development of the tobacco industry in the Philippines. * The reported abuses committed by the Spanish government officials led to its abolition in 1882 by Governor-General Primo de Rivera. Economic Society of Friends of the Country * Sociedad Economic de Amigo del Pais * It was established on May 6, 1781. * Five sections: Factories and manufactures * Education * Natural history * Domestic and foreign commerce * Agriculture and rural economy Royal Company of the Philippines * Real Compana de Filipinas * It was established by Governor-General Basco in 1785 with a total capital amounting to P8,000,000. * The main aim of this company was to establish direct trade relations with the Philippines to Spain and to develop the former’s natural resources. * In accordance with the company’s charter, the Philippines was mandated to set aside four percent of its profits for agricultural development.

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