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The inspiration of nature in design created a movement of Organic Architecture through functionalism and minimalism since the 1800’s influencing some of the greatest architects to emerge. Functionalist architects and artists design utilitarian structures in which the Organic Architecture dictates the development within and moves outward in harmony with its surroundings, without regard to such traditional devices as axial symmetry and classical proportions or any other heavy ornamentation.

Louis Henry Sullivan’s design theory that “form ever follows function” leads the dialogue towards a new world of design where the buildings effect on its surroundings is considered. Inspired by his mentor Frank Lloyd Wright expands on the design theory with “form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union. ” Nature is used in relation to building, materials and design. Phillip Johnson contributes to the movement with stating “Architecture is the art of how to waste space. By simplifying with the International Style which has geometric forms, open interiors, and the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete there is an unobstructed view of the exterior from the interior. Eero Saarinen pushed past what he called “The ABC’s of modernism “that were simple ;amp; abstract to utilizing new materials, innovative construction techniques, and sculptural forms in his design. He created some of the most interesting roofs. I intend on showing how each of these architects in their own contribution inspired awareness to nature and design.

The movement of Organic Architecture is a product of all their dedication and hard work. Louis Henry Sullivan (1856–1924) Louis Sullivan was born in Boston in 1856. He went to MIT before moving to Philadelphia then to Chicago. He also studied at L’Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. In the 19th century this school was considered just as prestigious as today’s most sought after graduate schools of fine arts. It attracted students from all over the world. The American Institute of Architects was formed in 1857. This caused universities like MIT and Columbia to offer degree programs in architecture.

Ecole des Beaux Arts style stresses classical proportions, scale, balance, beauty, and an understanding of from the ancient world down through the Renaissance and its influence on architecture. Louis Sullivan thought both MIT ;amp; Ecole des Beaux Arts were disappointing do to the focus on the Renaissance and classical periods. He yearned for something outside the box. This hungry for more helped him be noted as one of the influential ;amp; innovative architect in movement of the modern period. When he returned from Paris partnered with Dankmar Adler and formed Adler Sullivan in Chicago in 1881. They both had specific roles in the firm.

Sullivan with the design partner and Adler was the engineer. Chicago’s regrowth after the Chicago Fire 1871 was booming, so their timing was great! The two complemented each other creating an appreciation of their work because it pushed to a more forward thinking in design approach. For example the McVicker’s Theater which was remodeled in 1885 caused critics to proclaim their work genius! Sullivan used incandescent lighting and electric chandeliers when most were still gas lamps. After another fire in 1890 it was redesigned by Adler & Sullivan again. Sadly the building was demolished in 1985 and replaced with a new 40 building.

McVicker’s Theatre, before the fire of 1871 McVicker’s Theatre, completed 1883-1885. Demolished 1922 Louis Sullivan rejected the standard classical design with detailed ornamentation was inspired by organic architectural elements inspired by nature. Sullivan was influenced by the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin. Most know Sullivan for creating the first skyscraper with the use of iron and steel skeletons. His designs of these vertical buildings were known as tall office buildings. He answered the need for more office, department stores and financial institution space in a city.

He would use intertwining vines and organic ornamentation on these tall buildings growing into the sky. Sullivan stated; “It is the pervading law of all things organic, and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things super-human, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. “(Cannon) From that moment on Functionalism in architecture is noticed. Functionalism in architecture means that the construction, types of materials and the purpose of the building should determine the design.

In short take notice on how a building will affect its surroundings in the design process. Sullivan was a very talented architect. Looking through Louis Sullivan’s designs even in his residential designs there were tall doors, windows; it was very vertical similar to his skyscrapers. He was influenced by different periods but Victorian which was the one he mostly designed in he disagreed with. It was too much design not enough function. He stated in his autobiography that his love for nature came from years on his grandfather’s farm. “Sullivan solved the “problem” of the skyscraper” (Cannon) He looked at it as a column.

It has all the parts; a base, shaft and capital. Examining this theory most of his work is based on this principle he had. The Wainwright Building is a perfect example of this theory. The Wainwright Building Location: 709 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1890-91 Height: 147 feet Stories: 10 The Wainwright Building falls into his pattern of design: a basement for furnace and utilities, a two story base for shops and other retail spaces, a sill, and the multi-story office section with continuous vertical columns rising to the attic. Often decorated and capped by a decorative cornice.

The Wainwright Building Location: 709 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1890-91 Height: 147 feet Stories: 10 The Wainwright Building falls into his pattern of design: a basement for furnace and utilities, a two story base for shops and other retail spaces, a sill, and the multi-story office section with continuous vertical columns rising to the attic. Often decorated and capped by a decorative cornice. Before this prior attempts to build with steel looked tiered or stacked almost like a cake. The Wainwright building materials are sandstone, brick and windows.

The first two stories have large deep windows and a modern approach to the brown sandstone due to the lacking of ornamentation. The next seven stories are red brick vertical columns with horizontal leaf decorated panels. The last story has round windows in terra cotta with a Notre Dame inspired leaf scroll. He wrote in the Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, “The skyscraper must be tall, every inch. The tall force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. His description reminds me of Jack and the Beanstalk and how this large beautiful vine grew into the sky just as Louis Sullivan’s tall buildings. The Chicago Stock Exchange is one of the few that falls out of his theory of design. The Chicago Stock Exchange Location: 30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1893-94 Stories: 13 Demolished: 1972 The Chicago Stock Exchange falls out of his pattern of design because it’s vertical height is not through uninterrupted columns but by projects bays with windows that began at the third floor sill to the bottom of the cornice.

These windows are known as “Chicago Windows” The Chicago Stock Exchange Location: 30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, USA Architect: Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler Year: 1893-94 Stories: 13 Demolished: 1972 The Chicago Stock Exchange falls out of his pattern of design because it’s vertical height is not through uninterrupted columns but by projects bays with windows that began at the third floor sill to the bottom of the cornice. These windows are known as “Chicago Windows” Chicago Window Window with one large fixed window in the middle of two narrow sash windows on either side Chicago Window

Window with one large fixed window in the middle of two narrow sash windows on either side When designing his buildings he would push to the maximum size window permitted by the load bearing walls to allow natural light flood in. His way of thinking will encourage more efficient space planning, concern for natural light and ventilation for future architects. In 1895 Adler and Sullivan partnership ended. Sullivan continued but moved to small buildings in small towns. The National Farmers and Merchants National Banks are two of most memorable designs as an architect not a designer. The National Famers Bank

Location: Ottawa, Minnesota Architect: Louis Sullivan Year: 1907-1908 Height: 53 feet The main area is a single cube within a enclosed box. The base is red sandstone with dark brick walls. Again he uses large windows that are arched and stained glass. The cornice is corbeled bricks. Sullivan used panels of ornamentation that were bronze, green terra cotta and cast iron. Attached to it is a separate rectangle that has offices & shops located in it. He still used his signature style but added the element of surprise in adding details. He stated his building anchors the lines of street facades. The National Famers Bank

Location: Ottawa, Minnesota Architect: Louis Sullivan Year: 1907-1908 Height: 53 feet The main area is a single cube within a enclosed box. The base is red sandstone with dark brick walls. Again he uses large windows that are arched and stained glass. The cornice is corbeled bricks. Sullivan used panels of ornamentation that were bronze, green terra cotta and cast iron. Attached to it is a separate rectangle that has offices & shops located in it. He still used his signature style but added the element of surprise in adding details. He stated his building anchors the lines of street facades.

Until a falling out about money Frank Lloyd Wright was and employee at Sullivan’s firm. He has always stated Sullivan was his “beloved master” and in the end paid for Sullivan’s funeral and headstone with a few other friends. His head stone reads, “Louis Henri Sullivan, by his buildings great in influence and power. His drawings unsurpassed in originality and beauty. His writings rich in poetry and prophesy. His teachings persuasive and eloquent, His philosophy where in “form follows function. ” He summed up all the truth in art. Sullivan has earned his place as one if the greatest architectural forces in America.

In testimony of these his professional and other friends have built this monument. “(Cannon) Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) “The solution of every problem is contained within itself. Its plan, form and character are determined by the nature of the site, the nature of the materials used, the nature of the system using them, the nature of the life concerned and the purpose of the building itself. “(Frank Lloyd Wright) Frank Lloyd Wright learned form and function form Sullivan but brought it to a new level with “Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union” (Wright).

This inspired Wright to create Prairie and Usonian style. Prairie style is a one or two story house built with brick or wood covered with stucco. The eaves of the low pitched roof extend well past the wall which creates a horizontal a low to the ground appearance. In the Midwest where Prairie style was started this would aid in blending the house with the flat prairie land. The extension of walls past the interior would create terraces or balconies. Casement windows in horizontal bands across the house were common. This aided in emphasizing the length of the house.

Where we use white trim on the exterior is popular today, dark wood trim against light stucco or brick is used in Prairie Style. Usonian style similar to Prairie style had low roofs, open living space but Usonian was a smaller home. It was the home every American could afford. The Robie House by Wright located in Chicago designed in Prairie Style: A. Low Pitched Roof B. Brick Finish C. Balcony D. Casement windows with leaded panes E. Brick wall with stucco ledge or coping The Robie House by Wright located in Chicago designed in Prairie Style: A. Low Pitched Roof B. Brick Finish C. Balcony

D. Casement windows with leaded panes E. Brick wall with stucco ledge or coping We have discussed how Sullivan brought functionalism to architecture; now let’s talk about how Wright brought Naturalism into architecture. Falling Water is a perfect example of how nature is use in relation to the building design, materials used and the placement on the site. The use of the four square rooms is lost and an open concept floor plan emerges. The use of glass is abundant. This allows views of the exterior to be inviting by the interior, allowing the two to complement each other.

Falling Water Location: Bear Run, PA Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright Year: 1936 – 1939 Falling Water Location: Bear Run, PA Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright Year: 1936 – 1939 Phillip Johnson (1906-2005) Eero Saarinen (1910-1961) Born in Finland the family immigrated to the US in 1929. Saarinen attended the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere where he studied sculpture, then went on to Yale for architecture. His father being an accomplished architect when he passed in 1950, Eero took over the family practice at Saarinen & Associates.

Saarinen partnered with Charles Eames in a new movement in furniture. They designed furniture with molded limited wood. Having an education in sculpture can easily be seen in his furniture pieces such as the “grasshopper” armchair or his “Womb” collection. His furniture is still trendy by today’s standards with the use of woods, metals and plastics it fits easily into any decor. Grasshopper Armchair The Womb Chair and Ottoman the Womb Settee Saarinen’s inspiration came in many forms, colors and materials.

His designs as an architect were equally as sculpted and free formed as his furniture. Dramatic shapes & different textures was his signature in Modern design. His believed each building was unique in its requirements inside and its relationship to the outside site. Each form is designed with its relationship to a larger part in mind at all times. Known for his unique roofs and the motion he created with the design his architectural work stands out in individuality. When designing Yale Hockey Rink he combined soaring concrete arches with a roof on suspended steel cables. D. S.

Ingalls Hockey rink, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut is a great example of Modern architecture. Eero Saarinen designed this building without any traditional boundaries. The roof has no set pitch and is a free form that looks like the motion of water. It is made of manmade and factory made materials such as concrete and steel. Even the landscape is minimal and sterile. This build has an undulating roof that is seen in in architecture today. It is commonly seen in modern airport terminals, and the glass front and glass doors seen in most commercial building front facades. D.

S. Ingalls Hockey rink, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut is a great example of Modern architecture. Eero Saarinen designed this building without any traditional boundaries. The roof has no set pitch and is a free form that looks like the motion of water. It is made of manmade and factory made materials such as concrete and steel. Even the landscape is minimal and sterile. This build has an undulating roof that is seen in in architecture today. It is commonly seen in modern airport terminals, and the glass front and glass doors seen in most commercial building front facades.

Eero Saarinen is said to have had an “Anti-Miesiam Stance” (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe known for his practice of Less is More in design) and is against less is more. This brings me to the Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport. This is considered his greatest building he designed. It expresses his believe that architecture should “stimulate man’s imagination or give man confidence or make him feel proud. ”(Saarinen) A theme of motion ;amp; excitement is used throughout the terminal. The main lobby is two cantilevered shells turned slightly giving it is bird like shape.

Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport 1956-62. Large windows allow the indoors to flow into the outdoors. Every wall and line is curved. Each space is designed for that specific areas needs then blends into where it merges with it next creating one continuous design. It closed in 2001 and they hope to reopen in sometime soon. Trans World Airlines Terminal at Kennedy Airport 1956-62. Large windows allow the indoors to flow into the outdoors. Every wall and line is curved. Each space is designed for that specific areas needs then blends into where it merges with it next creating one continuous design.

It closed in 2001 and they hope to reopen in sometime soon. These are not all completed in MLA I am working on getting them correct. Sources: Lonsinger, “Craftsmen Perspective”, http://www. craftsmanperspective. com, 6 April 2010, Web, 6/5/12 ReDo, “Form Ever Follows Function”, http://www. redo-stl. com/design-decoration/form-ever-follows-function-find-your-design-inspiration/, Web, 6/6/12 About. com, Web, 6/6/12 http://architecture. about. com/od/periodsstyles/g/organic. htm Eleman,“Legacy Essay- Frank Lloyd Wright and the Principles of Organic Architecture ”, http://www. pbs. rg/flw/legacy/essay1. html, Web. ,b 6/6/12 Cronon,“Legacy Essay An Excerpt From “Inconstant Unity: The Passion of Frank Lloyd Wright” ”, http://www. pbs. org/flw/legacy/essay1. html, Web. ,6/6/12 The theory of architecture: concepts, themes ;amp; practices By Paul-Alan Johnson, Louis Sullivan: Creating a New American Architecture by Patrick F. Cannon Museum of Modern art, Web, 6/6/12, http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/acam/hd_acam. htm http://architecture. about. com/od/skyscrapers/ig/Skyscrapers/Wainwright-Building-. htm Louis Henry Sullivan, Web, 6/12/12, http://architect. architecture. k/louis-henry-sullivan-architect/louis-henry-sullivan-architect. php http://architecture. about. com/od/20thcenturytrends/ig/Modern-Architecture/International-Style. htm http://www. cpdit01. com/resources/planning-and-development. fountains-monuments-and-sculptures/Grant%20Park/Chicago%20Stock%20Exchange%20Arch. pdf http://dig. lib. niu. edu/ISHS/ishs-2005spring/ishs-2005spring051. pdf http://www. patsabin. com/illinois/mcvickers. html http://www. greatbuildings. com/buildings/National_Farmers_Bank. html http://www. dwr. com/category/designers/r-t/eero-saarinen. do http://www. greatbuildings. com/buildings/TWA_at_New_York. html

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