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Pakistan Studies June 2009 PAKISTAN STUDIES Paper 2059/01 History and Culture of Pakistan General Comments The entry was comparable to June 2008, as was the standard of work. Almost every candidate answered three questions with few rubric errors. Time appeared to have been well used; few were unable to complete their final answer. Examiners were again pleased that many candidates produced some very good responses that were relevant and focused, attempting to address the questions as set with an appropriate length of answer. The depth of knowledge of such answers was very good.

However, explanations continue to let candidates down especially where they are knowledgeable about topics. This can be best exemplified with Question 4(c) where the overwhelming number of answers was narrative in format. The other aspect which raises concern are the number of candidates who produced descriptive or generalised answers which contained much unnecessary or irrelevant detail that did not answer the question. Nevertheless, there were also a pleasing number of candidates who attempted to produce a judgement at the end of their part (c) answers. This has not been so evident in previous years.

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This was an excellent and refreshing approach to such questions, and one that Centres should encourage strongly. Comments on Individual Questions The most popular questions answered this year appeared to be 1, 2 and 3. Question 1 This was a very popular question that saw some very high scoring marks. Part (a) was quite well answered, with most gaining 3 or 4 marks. Part (b) caused few problems as most candidates were able to explain why the East India Company got involved in the sub-continent. As a result many candidates scored a Level 3 mark, often reaching the maximum allowable.

In (c), the question focused on the ways in which Urdu and regional languages have been successfully promoted since 1947. The crucial point of the question was the way in which they were promoted rather than a description of each – most candidates were knowledgeable about all of these languages but fewer could successfully explain how they were promoted. However, having said that, most were able to address the question scoring well into Level 3 or 4 if they dealt with both regional languages and Urdu. For others, however, a narrative approach confined their answer to, at best, a Level 2 mark.

Question 2 This was also a popular question, which caused candidates few problems. Most candidates scored 2 or 3 marks in (a). In (b), the question focused on the reasons why the British were successful in increasing its control of some parts of the sub-continent. For those candidates who had been well prepared for the examination this caused few problems for them and many answers from these candidates were accurate and relevant scoring a good mark within Level 3. Part (c) was generally very well answered by most who were knowledgeable about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.

Candidates were required to explain his contributions to the cause of the Muslims which included the development of a western education system. Again the crucial part of the question hinged on explaining his contributions rather than describing his career. A mere description of this could result in only a Level 2 mark. However, most were able to explain his contributions and a Level 4 mark was achieved where candidates were able to explain his contributions through education and other aspects of his work, such as religion and politics. Question 3 Again this was a popular question. Part (a) usually attracted 2 or 3 marks.

In (b), the question required candidates to explain why the Muslim League was established in 1906. Again this was a well known topic 1 © UCLES 2009 2059 Pakistan Studies June 2009 and few candidates had many problems scoring a Level 3 mark. However for some lengthy answers that went back to the foundation of the Congress party were unnecessary and little or no credit for such detail was forthcoming in most cases. Part (c) was a well known topic. Many candidates who were well prepared found little difficulty in explaining the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 and then reunited in 1911.

For those candidates who explained each part, a Level 4 mark was available. However, many were unable to consider both sides well and, as a result, were only able to score 9 or 10 marks. Question 4 This was not as popular a question, with few scoring highly especially in part (c). Candidates were only able to score on average 2 marks in the main on the (a) short answer questions. In (b), candidates had to explain why the Khilafat Movement failed. Generally, these responses were well explained and often with greater confidence than the question that often appears as part (c) one.

As such most candidates were able to access a mark in Level 3. However, it is important recognise that the question requires an explanation of why, for example, the Chaura Chari incident caused its failure rather than a description of these events. In their responses to (c) on the achievements of Jinnah from 1929 to 1947, many candidates found great difficulty in scoring high marks since they were unable to deal with the requirements of the question set. The result was that there were many descriptive answers about his career rather than a consideration of his achievements.

As a result, most candidates were only able to score a mark within Level 2 at best. Question 5 This was also a less popular choice of question for candidates and one that produced varying degrees of success. In (a), most scored only 2 marks. In (b), many candidates scored well on the reasons why the Cripps Mission was unsuccessful. However many candidates often wasted much time by describing the background and events leading up to the event rather than getting to the point of the question. In (c), there were some good answers to the question asking the reasons for the creation of Bangladesh.

However in doing this, candidates had to be mindful that they had to deal with economic factors as well as others in order to access Level 4 and also to explain why these factors resulted in the creation of Bangladesh rather than merely describe them. Few were able to do this part well and many answers tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of the reasons. THE FUTURE … 1. Teachers are reminded that the present syllabus will be examined for the last time in November 2009. 2. The revised syllabus, specimen papers and mark schemes were published at the start of 2008.

The first examinations using the revised syllabus will be June 2010. 3. Syllabus content: the end date has been extended from 1988 to 1999. Elsewhere, minor alterations have been made to make the syllabus clearer and keep it manageable. The Content and Notes have been merged so that teachers now have a single guide to what must be taught. Each topic has ‘Focus Points’ around which teaching and learning should concentrate. 4. Assessment: every part (a) will now be a single question set on a short piece of stimulus prose requiring a short paragraph-length answer.

Teachers have been encouraged to use historical evidence in their teaching for some time and students need to be familiar with it within the learning process. NB Source evaluation is not required. 5. Teachers will have the opportunity to consider these changes with a senior examiner at the training meetings in October 2009. 6. All teachers are encouraged to join the syllabus’ eDiscussion Forum. This will enable syllabus teachers to talk to each other, asking questions, seeking advice, sharing ideas and materials (upload and download).

You will also be able to set up alerts that will inform you automatically when something new is posted. We are most grateful to teachers for the help that they gave CIE during the extensive consultation process. 2 © UCLES 2009 2059 Pakistan Studies June 2009 PAKISTAN STUDIES Paper 2059/02 Environment of Pakistan General comments The standard of achievement was generally moderate to very good and there was a wide range of marks. Examiners felt that performance had generally improved a little, although some felt that some disadvantaged themselves by failing to answer the questions properly.

For example, one Examiner said ‘some answers were excessively vague with imprecise language and excessive verbosity’. Another said ‘candidates need to give attention to the terms used in the question (see syllabus) in order to write more focused answers. ’ Some poorer candidates wrote at length without answering the question. It is vital that candidates read the whole of each question properly before they start their answer to each part. Questions are written in a way to guide the candidate through so it is better to answer the parts in the correct order.

In addition, much time is wasted on details that cannot gain marks. There were several occasions where candidates did this in this paper (especially Question 1(d)(ii) and (e), 2(b) and (e) and 3(a)). Most candidates presented their work neatly in the booklets provided, their handwriting and standard of English is good, and written in well-constructed sentences. It was noted that some answers were written in very pale blue ink that did not appear clearly on the paper. Many Examiners expressed annoyance that most candidates do not write the numbers of the questions answered on the front of the booklet.

This is a simple task, only three numbers are needed e. g. Questions 1, 2, 3. This helps because most Examiners mark one question at a time on all papers In the examination room, candidates should be reminded to leave space between questions for the Examiner to mark, and to list the questions answered on the front of the answer booklet. It is not necessary for the candidate to re-write the question before they answer it. Photographs should be kept by the teacher as a teaching aid for the future. Teachers must be aware that a revised syllabus for examination in 2010 should now be taught.

Although much remains unchanged, teachers will need to have prepared their candidates with better skills to analyse resources such as graphs and magazine extracts, as well as maps and photographs. Candidates will need to have a clear understanding of the meaning of the term ‘development’. Questions will ask candidates to express their opinions, make evaluations and consider the sustainability of developmental issues in an environmental context. QUESTIONS Command words are written in italics. Question 1 (a) (i) Many candidates did not describe the site of the dam.

They failed to recognise the deep, narrow valley where the dam was built, the beach to the top right and the scree at the base of the slopes below the dam. Some wrote about the climate of the area, or its function as a tourist attraction, this was irrelevant. In (ii), most failed to notice the beach area, which indicated a lower water level. Again candidates did not use the photographs well. Few commented on the different shapes of the structures but wrote about land use and function. Most achieved only a single mark for ‘mountainous and plain areas’. b) 3 © UCLES 2009 2059 Pakistan Studies June 2009 (c) (i)(ii) Most candidates calculated the correct figure and explained that this reduction was due to siltation caused by a variety of factors such as deforestation and soil erosion. Other explanations were the reduction of rainfall and increased evaporation due to climatic change, and the increased demands for water due to better agricultural methods, industrialisation and urbanisation. In (iii), candidates were less sure of ways of reducing further losses.

Planting of trees to improve the climate was a little optimistic, but those who linked this to a reduction in soil erosion gained credit, as did those who explained that silt traps can be installed, or how dredging can remove some of the silt already there. Others explained ways of reducing wastage by the users of the water. A few candidates confused siltation with salinity. (d) Most stated that water was a free, renewable resource readily available in the northern areas, but many did not read (ii) properly.

They did not explain that the supply has to travel long distances at great cost, and at the risk of transmission losses and damage to the infrastructure. Some candidates did not understand that (i) required the naming of attractions, not the settlements that have them. The attractions of mountain areas are many, including a cool climate, snow and ice, impressive scenery including rivers, waterfalls, mountain peaks and valleys, and provide the facilities for a great number of outdoor activities such as hiking and climbing. In addition there are the cultural attractions and products of traditional industries.

In (ii), many answers were full of vague and repetitive references to facilities and requirements of tourism. The question required candidates to explain how development can be brought about, and those who explained that employment is generated in and out of hotels, souvenirs are purchased from local industries thus increasing local incomes, and better food is provided leading to higher standards of living. Many types of infrastructure are installed including metalled roads, electricity and gas, telecommunications and clean water, and the people can benefit from meeting cultures from more advanced areas.

Good examples were the new roads to Murree and Gilgit, investment in cottage industries and lower death rates in some areas. Question 2 (a) (b) Most candidates answered this correctly. It was hoped that this would guide them into (b). Some candidates did not link their answer to Figure 2, the rainfall chart and chose to quote their learned knowledge about rice cultivation. Those who gained marks linked the processes to the rainfall in named months, quoting figures from the chart such as ‘285 mms of rain in July to keep the fields flooded and ensure maximum growth’. Many candidates appeared not to know why HYV seeds are preferred.

Although many gained one mark for stating that they gave a higher output, few added that these seeds are drought and pest resistant and have stronger stems to stand up to heavy rainfall and wind. As they grow fast sometimes two crops can be grown in one year if there is sufficient water, and in some areas they are available with incentives by the government to provide more food for the growing population. Too much time was wasted writing about possible future benefits of increased mechanisation and better cultivation that may only possibly be gained if the increased cost of the HYV seed leaves enough profit for investment. e) (c) (i) (c) (ii)(iii) Most candidates correctly read the bar chart and gave the answer of 6 months. Those who simply listed the months did not answer the question as it did not ask them to be named. Many explained four methods of providing water, although some did not clearly indicate the four that they had chosen to write about. Some gave a good account, separating traditional and modern methods and comparing their cost and effectiveness (not strictly necessary for this question). (d) Some candidates failed to understand the different meanings of the separate parts.

Part (i) required knowledge of what alluvial soil is and where it comes from, whereas part (ii) asked why it is good for plant growth. Some candidates did not state that it was a mineral soil left after flooding and this is why it is lacking in organic matter. The fact that it is a fertile soil that is well drained and yet moisture retentive was not often stated. 4 © UCLES 2009 2059 Pakistan Studies June 2009 (e) This was generally answered well, although few candidates gave enough reasons to gain six marks.

Some wrote at length about rainfall patterns in the Indus Plains; others gave unnecessary importance to restrictions imposed by the Indus Treaty. A few appeared not to know where the Indus Plains were. A good answer included reference to the shortages at source due to lack of rainfall and siltation of the water supply system. Their answer might then move on to the high demands of industry, agriculture and domestic use and the problems of wastage and pollution of the supply. Question 3 (a) Most candidates correctly named the three cities for (i).

For (ii), some neglected the map provided and listed instead the cities that the road passed through. A good answer referred to the compass directions north-east overall to Lahore then north-west to Peshawar as well as naming the rivers followed and crossed by the N5. In (iii), most correct answers stated that the Indus Highway travels to the west of the River Indus but the N5 flows to the east, and that the Indus Highway travels directly north to Peshawar crossing the Surghar Range whereas the N5 travels a longer route though the developed areas of Punjab and bridges all of the five rivers before reaching Peshawar.

Many candidates stated incorrectly that the Indus Highway passes through Balochistan or does not enter Punjab Province. (b) Most answered (i) with unnecessary detail, and even then failed to compare the amounts carried. A short question like this simply required general statements describing the broad trends such as ‘roads carry more freight than railways’ with an extra mark for some comparative figure such as ‘twenty times more’, then ‘road increases more than railway’ with some figures to illustrate this. There was no credit for year-by-year description.

In (ii), vague statements such as ‘road is quicker, safer, cheaper or more efficient’ are difficult to justify without reference to the reasons for this. Marks were awarded for reference to the lack of investment in railways compared to that in roads, and to the fact that the road network is more dense and reaches the more remote parts of the country where railways have not been built or are badly damaged. There are also the restrictions that railways do not provide door-to-door service, and that industrial units are built along new roads rather than by railway stations. c) Candidates showed a good knowledge of the environment of Balochistan and many achieved full marks for (i). However, many gave answers to (ii) that were broad generalisations about increasing the industrial, trading and social infrastructure. One Examiner commented ‘a common approach was to start off with a reference to better transport routes, and then completely loose sight of this idea with a long piece about what aspects of development might happen. ’ In general few candidates had a clear idea of what development means and they did not link aspects of development to transport routes.

A good answer to (ii) would have referred to the exploitation of the rich mineral resources of the province, promotion of the fishing industry at the coast and fruits from the interior. More trade with other provinces and across the western borders and thus increasing employment opportunities and even tourism. Following this more settlements will develop and better infrastructure such as electricity, gas and clean water will be provided leading to more inward and less out migration, better education and health provision.

Question 4 (a) Candidates showed an improved knowledge of the iron and steel industry but some did not have a clear idea of the inputs, for example steel is only an output, and iron ore is the input. There is also some confusion between manganese and magnesium. In fact the three most important inputs are iron ore, coke and limestone. For (ii), most stated that most mineral resources are in remote areas and are not exploited because of this and the lack of technology, coal reserves are of poor quality, and only a little iron ore is produced. The answer ‘the reserves are lacking in quantity and quality’ was a little vague.

In (iii), the candidates recognised sheets of steel in Photograph D but not the rolled steel in E. Many called these barrels, rollers or tubes. 5 © UCLES 2009 2059 Pakistan Studies June 2009 (b) Most candidates correctly named two inputs but failed to answer (ii) correctly. The question asked how these inputs could improve production. A good answer referred to quality, efficiency and speed as well as the possibilities of finding new markets because of the improvement. A candidate who referred simply to more production failed to achieve credit. This is a topic on which knowledge was lacking.

In (i), many confused an EPZ with a Dry Port and did not make the link between improved quality and increasing exports. In (ii), a good answer would have linked industrial estates to their advantages for production, especially the provision of infrastructure. Reliable electricity supply with back-up generators, gas, water and telecommunication facilities, as well as access to a good network of roads and possibly railways exists in a modern industrial estate. Many candidates wrote at length about attracting investors but it is not until this infrastructure is in place that the government can really attract investment.

Incentives are of no use unless there is something to offer industrialists. Some good candidates referred to the NIZ and SITE which are examples of industrial estates. (c) (d) Most candidates had an extensive knowledge of the characteristics of formal employment, some referring to the cotton industry as an example. Question 5 (a) (i) Most candidates correctly added both male and female bars together to get the answer but in (ii) many attributed the shorter bars of the 0-4 age group to a higher infant mortality rate.

This is not true. The most important reason is lower birth rates in the last four years. Almost all candidates knew that X was young dependents and Y the economically active group. In (iii), most achieved good marks by explaining that this group was the older dependents who made financial and demands on both the government’s and Group Y’s resources. Some went on to give the need for food, medical care and pensions thus leading to less money for development projects and high taxes for group Y.

Few stated that older people provided a source of wisdom and guidance to the younger workers and the government, and childcare for working parents. (c) Many candidates showed a good knowledge of the reasons for high birth rates and means of their reduction although many answers were unstructured and made only vague reference to ‘education, awareness and family planning’ without explaining the links between them. A good answer referred to a lack of educated family planning and access to contraceptives in rural areas, strong religious beliefs and a need for child labour and support.

In (ii), this good answer would explain how education and medical facilities in rural areas could increase understanding of the need to reduce birth rates and the means of contraception. Education of young women and men as well could improve their chances of employment and give a modern attitude to their life thus leading to later marriages and smaller families. It would also enable them to understand religious teaching without going to extremes. (d) (i) A few candidates did not read this question and wrote about the reasons for rural urban migration.

However many gave a good answer explaining that shortages of Schools, hospitals, power supplies, water and housing would occur in urban areas. This would lead to illiteracy, bad health and disease, poor living conditions and breaking the law. Some good candidates also considered the effects in rural areas which are equally serious, for example the loss of the young male population and educated workers leading to a less productive society, and the consequence of neglect of these areas by governing authorities leading to a lack of development projects.

For (ii), there are a number of reasons for migration to other countries. Opportunities are offered in Europe, the USA, Canada, the UAE and other developed countries for skilled workers, but many are tempted to travel across the world with only a dream of good work, modern living conditions and a good education for their children. The present political difficulties in Pakistan add to reasons for emigration. (b) 6 © UCLES 2009

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