James Monroe & Postwar Nationalism James Monroe and Postwar Nationalism I. Economic Nationalism A. Democratic – Republicans: 1. gained control of government by 1815: a. considered problems from viewpoint of “national” interest b. adopted Federalist ideas on national problems B. Second National Bank: 1. charter of first bank expired in 1811 2. 1816 – Congress charters second Bank of the United States a. Democratic – Republicans supported bank in national interest C. Protective Tariff of 1816: 1. passed to counter threat of cheap British imports . increased tariff supported by all sections of America b. Jefferson now considered industry as “necessary to our independence” D. Internal Improvements: 1. 1811 – Congress approves construction of the National Road (also called the Cumberland Road) a. ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia b. linked Potomac to the Ohio River c. paid by Federal Government to develop the nation E. Era of Good Feelings (1817 – 1823): 1. period of President Monroe and feeling of national unity a. Federalists disappeared as a national party b.
Democratic – Republicans the only major political party 2. Monroe re–elected with every electoral vote but one a. also supported in Federalist New England F. Panic of 1819: 1. Causes: a. Second Bank called in loans made by state banks to western land speculators b. speculators could not repay and land prices sharply declined c. European demand for American farm products and textiles also declined d. many planters had invested in western land 2. Result: a. banks foreclosed on many mortgaged farms b. business firms filed bankruptcy c. unemployment sharply increased and prices declined d. any Americans blamed Bank of the United States for the economic depression II. Foreign Affairs and Nationalism A. Rush – Bagot Agreement (1817): 1. U. S. and Great Britain agreed to the following: a. mutual naval disarmament on the Great Lakes b. disarmament along the U. S. and Canadian land border later included (3,000 miles) 2. agreement first time Britain treated America as an equal B. Convention of 1818: 1. U. S. and Britain agreed to following: a. boundary line between U. S. and Canada fixed at the 49th Parallel Line b. U. S. and Britain would jointly occupy Oregon Country
C. Adams – Onis Treaty (1819): 1. Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, and Spanish Foreign Minister, Luis de Onis, agreed to the following: a. Spain would sell Florida to the U. S. for $15 million b. U. S. would give up claims to Texas c. Spain would accept 42nd parallel line as the boundary between Mexico and the Oregon Country 2. purchase of Florida supported by the entire nation D. Monroe Doctrine (1823): 1. Spain wanted to regain its lost colonies in Latin America a. Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia offered to help Spain 2. Britain proposed joint declaration with U. S. o prevent European action in Latin America a. John Quincy Adams opposed joint declaration 3. Monroe Doctrine: a. western hemisphere no longer open to European colonization b. transfer of New World colonies from one European power to another forbidden
c. America would not interfere with Europe’s affairs, Europe should not interfere with America’s 4. Monroe Doctrine a major cornerstone of U. S. foreign policy III. Judicial Nationalism A. Marshall Court: 1. the following landmark cases established federal supremacy over the states: a. Marbury v. Madison (1803) – Supreme Court establishes power of udicial review by declaring Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional (judicial review) b. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – Supreme Court establishes its power to review state cases c. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – set precedent that states may not pass laws impairing private contracts d. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – upheld the Bank of United States as constitutional; states cannot tax a federal agency (“The power to tax is the power to destroy. ”) e. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – established supremacy of the Federal Government over states in interstate trade IV.
The West and Nationalism A. Population Trends: 1. European immigrants and people from eastern seaboard traveled westward after the War of 1812 a. number of settlers west of Appalachians doubled between 1810 and 1820 b. Federal Government offered cheap western land for new settlers ($1. 25 per acre) 2. western settlers strongly nationalist a. not attached to section or state 3. western settlers expected the following from Federal Government: a. cheap land b. internal improvements, especially roads and canals c. protection against Indians B. Increased Transportation: . the following modes of transportation increased western settlement: a. turnpikes and public roads b. Cumberland Road connected Maryland with Wheeling (Virginia) and Vandalia, Illinois (1852) c. Wilderness Road went through Cumberland Gap, a mountain pass from North Carolina into Tennessee and Kentucky d. steamboats, canals, railroads connected western frontier with east coast cities and ports e. 1807 – Robert Fulton built first successful steamboat f. 1825 – Erie Canal connected Great Lakes with New York City and the Atlantic Ocean (financed by New York State) C.
American System: 1. Henry Clay’s plan to make America economically self – sufficient, which proposed the following: a. the West and South support a protective tariff and national bank to aid Northern industry b. the North would support a federal program of roads and canals to unite the country 2. Clay believed all sections of America were interdependent: a. West and South produced agricultural goods b. North produced manufactured goods c. all sections needed the goods of the other to prosper 3. American System never adopted a. sectionalism was replacing the feeling of nationalism