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Infancy and Early Childhood Development Infancy and Early Childhood Development Child development starts well before a child is brought into the world but genetics, parental, and other family influences help infants and children social development. Parent’s character traits are certain to have some influence on his or her child’s social development. Introverted parents, who are not relaxed in social situations, are not likely to expose his or her child to new people or new experiences. Children who have extrovert parents are more likely to be relaxed when interacting with other children.

Restricting a child’s social contact can cause a child to be sheltered. Developmental psychologists have long speculated about the influences that parenting styles have on the social development of children (Grace, 2010). A child may only have access to certain neighborhoods and school; this will limit the child’s opportunities for social development. This causes the child not to have a diverse background. This lack of diversity limits the child’s ability to be socially competent in various circumstances (Ramsey, 1986). Children with siblings typically learn how to loose, fight, and win a fight by interacting with his or her siblings.

A parent can encourage a child’s emotional development by setting positive examples. Infants must keep a close relationship with one or more adults to develop a strong emotional attachment. A growing bonding attachment with a minimum of one adult is crucial to any child’s well-being, social development and emotional development. Children tend to excel in life if his or her parent is educated, if the family incomes are higher, his or her parent have rare or no signs of depression, the family have routine schedules, books, play materials, and are active in his or her child’s learning activities.

A mother’s interaction with her children is important for the child’s development. Children develop better if the mother is sensitive, responsive, and attentive. Mothers that fit this category are usually educated, live in privileged households, and have positive personalities. A number of studies have examined the connections between family’s socioeconomic conditions and educational outcomes of their children. A family’s economic state is determined by the parent’s educational background, so parental education seems to be the most important influence to explain developmental outcomes.

The type of socialization can be measured by the contact within the family’s home environment ( Biedinger, 2011). Different parenting styles have influences on the social development of children (Grace, 2010). The authoritarian parent places high demands on his or her children. The parent does not allow opportunity for discussion and does not contemplate on the child’s feelings; this parent expects his or her wishes to be carried out without offering the child an explanation. This parenting style can cause children to be fearful, anxious, frustrated or withdrawn. The authoritarian parent usually says, “Do it because I said so. The authoritative parent uses supportive discipline, he or she expects good behavior from his or her kid, the child is guided the child gently and lovingly way, oppose to being forceful or cruel. The authoritative parent is willing to listen to his or her children concerns and complaints. Authoritative parent’s children have self-confidence and he or she is well trained. Children who have authoritative parents are rewarded with positive reinforcement when the parents expectations are meet. The permissive parent is extremely lenient, permissive parents allow his or her child to decide what he or she think is suitable behavior.

The permissive parents hardly ever discipline his or her children and usually take on the role of being the child’s friend instead of the parent. Children with permissive parents have no control over his or her emotions and problems when interacting with peers. The neglectful parent places the well-being of his or her children as a low importance. The neglectful parent meets the child basic needs but he or she is not involved with the child’s emotional needs. Children with neglectful parents are normally expressively undeveloped and may take part in belligerent behaviors.

The parenting style most effective would be the authoritative parent style these children are guided and natured. The child senses love and the child also knows if he or she steps out of line there will be reinforcement. This child is more likely to respect other people since he or she has been well trained. The child receives support and is typical not met with any resistance when dealing with support issues from parents. Early childhood education has had an influence on cognitive development since the 1800s when a private kindergarten was inside of a home.

In the 1920s Jean Piaget began to work on cognitive development in children. Piaget work was called stages of development. Head start programs were created in the 1960s to help children reach his or her cognitive development before starting kindergarten. Jean Piaget identified several stages of cognitive development. The second stage Piaget developed is called the early childhood stage also known as the preoperational stage (age’s two to seven). In this stage a child is placed in a classroom setting to learn language use and to recognize objects by images and words. Piaget believed that children thought differently from adults.

Lev Vygotsky believed that a child’s development occurred when he or she had interactions surrounding a social environment. The interactions could be with parents, books, sisters, brothers, blocks, or a teacher. Vygotsky thinks that learning could occur with any child as long as the child was in his or her zone of proximal development and he or she was given the right support. Early childhood education can set the foundations for achievements later in life. Early childhood helps to improve children’s attention, short-term memory, and language. Early childhood is known to be a fast of development in children lives.

Each child develops at his or her own speed. The goal of early child development programs is to improve young children’s capability to develop and learn. A child who is ready for school will have a group of positive features. The positive features that each child should possess are language skills, friendliness, and communication skills. The positive effects that early childhood education programs can enhance the development of children by the time he or she starts grade school. Children that are prepared for school more than likely will not repeat a grade, be in special education classes, or drop out of school. Early childhood helps children in all aspects of cognitive development.

References Grace, E. (2010). Family Factors Affecting Social Development. Kids Development. Retrieved from http://www. kidsdevelopment. couk National Institutes of Health. (2006). U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved from http://www. nih. gov Ramsey, P. G. (1986). Teaching and Learning in Diverse World. New York, New York: Teachers College Press. Cherry, K. Parenting Styles. About. com. Psychology. http://www. psychology. about. com/od/developmenta

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