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Individualism & Collectivism: Collectivism is the degree to which people work together in groups and it is measured on group achievement. Individualism is the degree to which people work independently and is measured on personal achievement. Canada has a very high individualism and a very low collectivism. In contrast to Turkey whose collectivism is high and individualism is low. In societies like Canada there is a strong sense of competition.

People expect from each other to fulfill their own goals and people have unattached relationships with one other people (Hofstede, 2009). In Turkish society family stands at the center of life, family members are highly trusted. Children are taught to help out the family and not to be independent. In Canadian society family is important but children are taught to be independent. In Turkey the family is always there to help out the children whenever they are needed, but in return the children are expected to take care of them when they get old.

In Canada parents are there for their children until a certain age, where children become independent and start working on their own. In Turkey older brothers are responsible for financing the younger siblings through school and when a time comes for weddings. In Canada everyone is responsible for their own finances. In Turkey Personal problems are solved by the help of the family, and the elders arrange marriages for the younger. In Canada personal problems are solved by yourself and you have the freedom to choose whoever you want to marry.

In Turkey most businesses are family owned and the top management consists of family members rather than professionals. In Canada companies are more willing to hire someone outside of the family than in Turkey. In Turkey belonging to a group is very important whether it be an educational, religious or social group. In Canada group membership is not as much of significance as in Turkey because our society promotes individualism. In Turkey people have a strong commitment to their relationships, while in Canada there is a loose commitment to relationships. Bodur, Kabaskal, 2009). In individualistic countries like Canada people are vulnerable to loneliness, but in collectivistic countries like Turkey people have a strong fear of rejection.

References: Bodur, H. , Kabaskal, M. (2009). Culture and leadership across the world. United States of America: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hofstede, G. (2009). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved October, 28 2010, from http://www. geert-hofstede. com/hofstede_canada. shtml.

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