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… misphere set on the larger circle is
intersected by vertical planes rising from the
sides of the square, forming four arches. A
horizontal plane is then passed through the
hemisphere at the tops of these arches, providing
a ring on which is built the dome, which has a
diameter equal to the circle inscribed within the
square. The pendentives are spherical triangles,
the remaining portions of the first, or outer,
hemisphere. At Hagia Sophia, two opposing arches
on the central square open into semidomes, each
pierced by three smaller radial semidomes, forming
an oblong volume 31 m (100 ft) wide by 80 m (260
ft) long. The central dome rises out of this
series of smaller spherical surfaces.

An abundance
of small windows, including a circle of them at
the rim of the dome, provides a diffused light.
Byzantine figurative art developed a
characteristic style; its architectural
application took the form of mosaics, great mural
compositions executed in tiny pieces (tesserae) of
colored marble and gilded glass, a technique
presumed to have been borrowed from Persia.
Byzantine churches, each with a central dome
opening into surrounding semidomes and other vault
forms, and accompanied by the characteristic
iconography, proliferated throughout the Byzantine
Empire-Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, and parts
of North Africa and Italy-and also influenced the
design of churches in Western Christendom. Later
churches are often miniaturizations of the
original grandiose concept; their proportions
emphasize vertical space, and the domes themselves
become smaller. When Moscow became Christian,
Europe was already into the Renaissance, but
Moscow’s Saint Basil’s Cathedral (1500-60) shows
how Byzantine domes finally became onion-shaped
tops of towers, no longer relevant to interior
space making. See Byzantine Art and Architecture.
A plan drawn on parchment of a now-vanished
monastery in Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, shows that
by the time of Charlemagne (742-814) the
Benedictine monastic order had become a big
departmentalized institution, but not until almost
1000 did church building come to life throughout
the West. At first, the architects were all monks,
for the monasteries supplied not only the material
wealth but also the aggregated learning that made
the new initiative possible. The basilican plan
used in earlier times needed elaboration to
accommodate a new liturgy.

The essential symbol of
the cross was incorporated in the form of
transepts, a cross axis (perhaps borrowed from
Byzantium) that served to identify the choir (for
the monks), as distinct from the nave (for the
public). Beyond the choir, in a semicircular apse
girded by the ambulatory (a semicircular extension
of the aisles), stood the main altar, the focal
point of the building. Subaltars, needed for the
daily Mass required of many monks, were placed in
the transepts and in the ambulatory. At the nave
entrance were placed narthexes, vestibules and
reception areas for pilgrims. Although many French
churches-Saint Savin sur Gartempe (nave
1095-1115), Saint Sernin in Toulouse (circa
1080-1120), and Sainte Foy in Conques (begun
1050)-had barrel-vaulted naves, Saint Philibert in
Tournus (950-1120) used transverse arches to
support a series of barrel vaults, with windows
high in the vertical plane at the ends of the
vaults. Ultimately, the groin vault became the
preferred solution, because it offered high
windows together with a continuous longitudinal
crown, as in Sainte Madeleine in Vzelay (1104) and
Worms Cathedral (11th century) in Germany.

semicircular arches of the groin vault form a
square in plan; thus, the nave consisted of a long
series of square bays or segments. The smaller and
lower vaults of the aisles were often doubled up,
two to each nave bay, to conform to this
configuration. The greatest monastic Romanesque
church, Cluny III (1088-1121), did not survive the
French Revolution but has been reconstructed in
drawings; it was an immense double-aisled church
almost 137 m (almost 450 ft) long, with 15 small
chapels in transepts and ambulatory. Its design
influenced Romanesque and Gothic churches in
Bourgogne and beyond. Another important stimulus
to French Romanesque was the pilgrimage cult; a
convergence of routes led over the western
Pyrenees into Spain and thus to Santiago de
Compostela, where the pilgrim could venerate the
presumed relics of St. James.

Along the routes to
Spain, certain points were sanctified as
pilgrimage stops, which led to the erection of
splendid Romanesque churches at Autun (1120-32),
Paray-le-Monial (circa 1100), Prigueux (1120),
Conques (1050), Moissac (circa 1120),
Clermont-Ferrand (1262), Saint Guilhem le Dsert
(1076), and others. See Romanesque Art and
Architecture. At the beginning of the 12th
century, Romanesque was transformed into Gothic.
Although the change was a response to a growing
rationalism in Christian theology, it was also the
result of technical developments in vaulting. To
build a vault requires first a temporary carpentry
structure, called centering, which supports the
masonry until the shell has been completed and the
mortar has set. Centering for the ordinary groin
vault must be for an entire structural unit, or
bay, with a resultant heavy structure resting on
the floor. About 1100, the builders of Durham
Cathedral in England invented a new method.

built two intersecting diagonal arches across the
bay, on lighter centering perhaps supported high
on the nave walls, and then found ways to fill out
the shell resting on secondary centering. This
gave a new geometric articulation-the ribbed
vault. Ribs did not modify the structural
characteristics of the groin vault, but they
offered constructional advantage and emphatically
changed the vault’s appearance. Another
development was the pointed arch and vault. The
main advantage was geometrical. Vaults of various
proportions could cover a rectangular or even a
trapezoidal bay, so that nave bays could
correspond with the narrower aisle bays, and
vaulting could proceed around the curved apse
without interruption.

Also, the nave walls
containing clerestory windows could be pushed just
as high as the crown of the vault. Soon this
clerestory became all window, filled with tracery
and stained glass that conferred a new luminosity
on the interior. With these advances, the master
builders were encouraged to construct more
elegant, higher, and apparently lighter
structures. But the vaults had to be kept from
spreading outward by restraint imposed near the
base of the vaults, now high above the aisle
roofs. The solution was another innovation, the
flying buttress, a half arch leaning against the
vault from the outside, with its base firmly set
in a massive pier of its own. This new style
received its most intensive development in the

The abbey church of Saint Denis
(1140-44), the royal mausoleum near Paris, became
the first grandiose model. Bishops in prosperous
northern cities were then drawn into competition
for designers and artisans to outdo other
cathedrals. The beginning dates of the major
French examples are Laon, 1160; Paris, 1163;
Chartres, 1194; Bourges, 1195; Reims, 1210;
Amiens, 1220; and Beauvais, 1225. The beginning
dates of English Gothic cathedrals are Canterbury,
1174; Lincoln, 1192; York Minster, 1261; and
Exeter, 1280. The collapse of the Beauvais choir
in 1284, however, indicated that structural limits
had been reached. The transverse span of the nave
vaults of these cathedrals was in the range of 9
to 15 m (30 to 50 ft), but the rebuilt Beauvais
choir attained a height of 47 m (154 ft).

the finest medieval architecture was
ecclesiastical, secular builders also constructed
great buildings in the years 1000 to 1400. The
medieval castle is a romantic symbol of feudalism;
one of the most impressive and best-preserved
examples is the Krak des Chevaliers (1131) in
Jordan, built by the Knights Hospitalers at the
time of the Crusades. Military architecture was a
defensive response to advances in the technology
of warfare; the ability to withstand siege
remained important. Fortifications sometimes
embraced whole towns; important examples include
vila in Spain, Aigues-Mortes and Carcassonne in
France, Chester in England, and Visby in Sweden.
Urbanization increased on a large scale, brought
about by the needs and desires of many groups,
including the church and its monasteries, the
nobles and kings, the craft guilds, and the
merchants and bankers. The planning patterns that
developed are quite different from the arbitrary
geometry of Roman cities or of Renaissance
theorists. Throughout northern Europe, where
hardwood remained available until the Industrial
Revolution, timber frame construction flourished.
In half-timber construction, a quickly erected
wood frame was infilled with wattle and daub
(twigs and plaster) or brickwork.

Monastic barns
and municipal covered markets necessitated large
braced wooden frames. The descendants of Vikings
built the curiously beautiful stave churches in
Norwegian valleys. In the Alps whole towns were
built of horizontally interlocked wood timbers of
square cross section. Brick architecture also
flourished in many regions, notably Lombardy,
northern Germany, Holland, and Denmark. See Gothic
Art and Architecture. The Islamic concept of a
mosque as a place for ablutions and prayer differs
from the idea of a Christian church, and the
desert climates in which Islam first became
established required protection from sun, wind,
and sand.

The initial prototype was a simple
walled-in rectangle containing a fountain and
surrounded with porticoes. A qibla, or wall toward
Mecca, had in its center an apse, or mihrab, with
a nearby pulpit, or minbar; the shelter at this
end consisted of multiple arcades of transverse
and lateral rows of columns. Structural elements
were the arch and the dome; roofs were flat unless
forced upward by vaults, and there were no high
windows. The mosque had at least one tower, or
minaret, from which the call to prayer was issued
five times daily. The same basic plan is followed
to this day. Western and Middle Eastern Islamic
Architecture The Great Mosque at Al Qayrawan in
Tunisia was built in AD 670, but its
well-preserved state today reflects construction
of the period 817-902.

The oldest mosque in Iraq
is at Samarra (847-52). It is now a brick ruin,
but its curious cone-shaped minaret with outside
spiral ramp survives. The Great Mosque at Crdoba
in Spain covers 2.4 hectares (6 acres) and was
built in several stages from 786 to 965. It was
converted to a Christian cathedral in 1236. Also
in Spain is the Alhambra (1354-91) at Granada, one
of the most dazzling examples of Islamic palace
architecture; its courts and fountains have
delighted visitors ever since its construction.
Over the centuries Islamic architecture borrowed
extensively from other cultures. Beginning in
1453, the Ottoman Turks ruled from Constantinople.
Sultan Suleiman I (the Magnificent) was a patron
of arts and architecture.

His architect, Sinan,
knew the Byzantine traditions, and in his mosques
he refined and elaborated on the great 6th-century
prototype, Hagia Sophia. Sinan’s masterpieces are
the Suleimaniye (begun 1550) in Istanbul and the
Selimiye (begun 1569) in Edirne. Iran is renowned
for brick masonry vaulting and for glazed ceramic
veneers. The finest examples of Islamic
architecture in Iran are found in Esfahan
(Isfahan), the former capital. The enormous
imperial mosque, the Masjid-i-Jami, represents
several construction periods, beginning in the
15th century. Even more richly ornamented is the
sumptuous Masjid-i-Shah (1585-1616), built to be
part of the royal civic compound of Shah Abbas I.
The Mughal peoples, who had embraced Islam, made
incursions into India and established an empire

Mughal architecture was based on Persian
traditions, but developed in northwestern India in
ways peculiar to that region. The earliest
remaining mosque, the Qutb, near Delhi, was begun
in 1195. It is impossible to separate Mughal
religious architecture from that erected to
glorify the Mughal Empire. The great builders were
the emperors of the 16th and 17th centuries. Their
most impressive monuments are a succession of
imperial tombs. Notable are the superbly
architectonic tomb (1564-73) of Humayun in Delhi,
the jewel-like Itimad-ud-Daulah (1622-28) in Agra,
and the beautifully proportioned and decorated Taj
Mahal (1632-48), also in Agra.

A typical tomb was
a high central dome surrounded by smaller chambers
arranged about two intersecting axes so that all
four sides of the structure are alike. It is built
on a raised platform overlooking a large formal
garden, surrounded by a wall, with pavilions at
the axial points. Each of the 16th- and
17th-century Mughal emperors elaborated the huge
forts at Lahore, Delhi, and Agra. These forts
included living quarters, mosque, baths, public
and private audience halls, and the harem. One
compound, that of Fatehpur Sikri, was begun in
1571 and abandoned in 1585. See Indian Art and

Islam forbade the representation of
persons and animals; yet craftsmen created highly
ornamented buildings. The motifs are geometrical
designs, floral arabesques, and Arabic
calligraphy. The materials are glazed tile, wood
joinery and marquetry, marble, mosaic, sandstone,
stucco carving, and white marble inlaid with dark
marbles and gemstones. See Islamic Art and
Architecture. The cultural revolution in Western
civilization now called the Renaissance brought
about an entirely new age, not only in philosophy
and literature but in the visual arts as well. In
architecture, the principles and styles of ancient
Greece and Rome were revived and reinterpreted, to
remain dominant until the 20th century.

Renaissance, literally meaning “rebirth,” brought
into being some of the most significant and
admired works ever built. Beginning in Italy about
1400, it spread to the rest of Europe during the
next 150 years. The families who governed rival
cities in northern Italy in the 15th century-de
Medici, Sforza, da Montefeltro, and others-had
become wealthy enough through commerce to become
patrons of the arts. People of leisure began to
take serious scholarly interest in the neglected
Latin culture-its literature, its art, and its
architecture, whose ruins lay about them. Early in
the 15th century the city of Florence was in the
process of completing its cathedral. Piers had
already been erected to support a dome almost as
large as that of the Pantheon in Rome.

A proposal
for its completion was submitted by Filippo
Brunelleschi, who had studied Roman structural
solutions. His constructed dome (1420-36) is
derived from Rome but is different; it is of
masonry, is octagonal, has inner and outer shells
connected by ribs, is pointed and rises higher,
and is crowned with a lantern. Its drum with
circular windows stands alone without buttressing,
for the base contains a tension ring-huge stone
blocks held together with iron clamps and topped
with heavy iron chains. Two additional tension
rings are contained within the dome’s double
shells. Brunelleschi stood at the threshold
between Gothic and Renaissance. His Pazzi Chapel
(begun c.

1441), also in Florence, is a clear
statement of new principles of proportion and
design. A new type of urban building evolved at
this time-the palazzo, or city residence of a
prominent family. The palazzi were several stories
high; rooms were grouped around a cortile, or
courtyard; the outer walls of the palazzo were on
the lot lines. The Florentine architect Leon
Battista Alberti, in his design for the Palazzo
Rucellai (1446-51), employed in its facade three
superposed classic orders, much as in the Roman
Colosseum, except that he used pilasters instead
of engaged columns. They seem to have been
engraved in the wall plane; the resulting
compartmentalization of the facade provides a
logical setting for the windows. Alberti also
published in 1485 the first book on architectural
theory since Vitruvius, which became a major
influence in promoting classicism.

In the 16th
century, Rome became the leading center for the
new architecture. The Milanese architect Donato
Bramante practiced in Rome beginning in 1499. His
Tempietto (1502), an elegantly proportioned
circular temple in the courtyard of San Pietro in
Montorio, was one of the earliest Renaissance
structures in Rome. The erection of a new basilica
of Saint Peter in Vatican City was the most
important of many 16th-century projects. In
drawing the first plan (1503-06) Bramante rejected
the Western basilica concept in favor of a Greek
cross of equal arms with a central dome. Popes who
came after Julius II, however, appointed other
architects-notably Michelangelo and Carlo
Maderno-and, when the church was completed in
1612, the Latin cross form had been imposed with a
lengthened nave.

Michelangelo’s dome, ribbed and
with a lantern, is a logical development from
Brunelleschi’s in Florence. It rises in a high
oval and is the prototype not only for later
churches but for many state capitol buildings in
the U.S. Toward the middle of the 16th century
such leading architects as Michelangelo,
Baldassare Peruzzi, Giulio Romano, and Giacomo da
Vignola began to use the classical Roman elements
in ways that did not conform to the rules that
governed designs in the early Renaissance. Arches,
columns, and entablatures came to be used as
devices to introduce drama through depth
recession, asymmetry, and unexpected proportions
and scales. This tendency, called Mannerism, is
exemplified by Giulio’s sophisticated Palazzo del
T (1526-34) at Mantua. The architect Andrea
Palladio practiced in the environs of Vicenza and

Although he visited Rome, he did not
wholly adopt the Mannerist approach. He
specialized in villas for gentleman farmers. These
villas explore all the variations on the classical
norms: governing axis defined in the approach,
single major entrance, single major interior space
surrounded by smaller rooms, secondary functions
extended in symmetrical arms, and careful
attention to proportion. They were immortalized by
Palladio’s publication The Four Books of
Architecture (1570; trans. 1738), in which
drawings for them appear, with the dimensions
written into the plans to emphasize Palladio’s
harmonic series of dimensions that govern the
major proportions. These books later enabled Inigo
Jones in England and Thomas Jefferson in Virginia
to propagate Palladian principles among the
gentleman farmers of their times.

In two large
Venetian churches, San Giorgio Maggiore (1565) and
II Redentore (1577), Palladio made important
contributions toward the adaptation of classic
ideas to the liturgical and formal traditions of
Roman Catholicism. Renaissance ideas had spread
rapidly to France by 1494. French royal policy was
to attract Italian artists (beginning with
Leonardo da Vinci in 1506) while at the same time
encouraging and developing native talent. It is
believed that the Italian architect Domenico da
Cortona designed the extraordinary Chteau de
Chambord that Francis I built (1519-47) in the
Loire Valley, which retains outward
characteristics of a medieval castle. The French
architects Jacques Androuet du Cerceau the Elder
and Philibert Delorme worked at Fontainebleau, and
Delorme was architect for the Chteau d’Anet, where
Benvenuto Cellini was employed as sculptor. In
Paris, work on the Louvre was undertaken by Pierre
Lescot in 1546.

Philip II of Spain engaged Juan de
Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo as architects
for his colossal Escorial (1563-84) near
Madrid-half palace, half monastery. England was
somewhat slower to change. Inigo Jones, its
principal early Renaissance architect, visited
Italy and emulated Palladio in such works as the
Banqueting House (1619-22) in Whitehall, London.
See Renaissance Art and Architecture. In early
Renaissance and even Mannerist architecture,
elements were combined in rather static
compositions; classic design implies a serene
balance among the several components, and spaces
locked into the geometry of perspective.
Unsatisfied with this, the baroque architects of
the 17th century deployed classic elements in more
complex ways, so that the identity of these
elements was masked, and space became more
ambiguous and more activated. Baroque movement is
understood as that of the observer experiencing
the work, and of the observer’s eyes scanning an
interior space or probing a long vista. Some of
the later rococo works contain a richness of
ornament, color, and imagery that, combined with a
highly sophisticated handling of light, overwhelms
the observer.

Italians were the pioneers of
baroque; the best known was the architect-sculptor
Gianlorenzo Bernini, designer of the great oval
plaza (begun 1656) in front of St. Peter’s.
Francesco Borromini produced two masterpieces,
both on an intimate scale, in Rome. San Carlo alle
Quattro Fontane (1638-41; facade completed 1667)
distorts the dome on pendentives into a coffered
ellipse to stretch the space into a longitudinal
axis; its facade undulates, entablature and all.
The plan of Sant’Ivo della Sapienza (begun 1642)
is based on two intersecting equilateral triangles
that produce six niches of alternating shapes;
these shapes, defined by pilasters and ribs, rise
through what would ordinarily be a dome,
continuing the hexagonal concept from floor to
lantern. Guarino Guarini designed a church in
Turin, San Lorenzo (1668-87), with eight
intersecting ribs that offer interstices for
letting in daylight. His even more astonishing
Cappella della Santa Sindone (Chapel of the Holy
Shroud, 1667-94), also in Turin, has a cone-shaped
hexagonal dome created by six segmental arches
rising in eight staggered tiers.
Seventeenth-century French architects also
designed baroque churches, one of their greatest
being part of Les Invalides, Paris (1676-1706), by
Jules Hardouin-Mansart. The best French talent,
however, was absorbed in the secular service of
Louis XIV and his government.

The Chteau de
Vaux-le-Vicomte (1657-61) is a grandiose ensemble
representing the collaboration of the architect
Louis Le Vau, the painter Charles Lebrun, and the
landscape architect Andr Le Ntre. The Sun King was
so impressed that he engaged these designers to
rebuild the Chteau de Versailles on a truly regal
scale. The Palace of Versailles became the center
of government and was continuously enlarged
between 1667 and 1710. Bernini submitted designs
for enlarging the Louvre in Paris, but Claude
Perrault was finally awarded that commission
(executed 1667-79). French architecture of le
grand sicle lacks the exuberance of Italian
baroque, but its designers achieved the epitome of
elegance. In England the rebuilding of London
after the 1666 fire brought to prominence the
many-talented Sir Christopher Wren, whose
masterpiece is Saint Paul’s Cathedral (1675-1710).
He also designed or influenced the design of many
other English churches.

Among other innovations,
Wren introduced the single square tower belfry
with tall spire that became the hallmark of church
architecture in England and the United States.
Baroque thinking powerfully addressed the area of
urban design. Michelangelo’s Campidoglio (Capitol,
1538-64) in Rome had already provided a model for
the public square, and villas such as Vignola’s
Villa Farnese (begun 1539) in Caprarola showed how
these important buildings could extend axial ties
into the townscape. Baroque church facades
frequently had more to do with their accompanying
piazzas than with the church interiors. Often,
whole new towns were built on formal principles.
Early in the 18th century Peter the Great brought
Italian and French baroque architects to Russia to
create Saint Petersburg. In the New World were
built such large urban centers as Mexico City;
Santiago, Chile; Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala;
Philadelphia; Savannah, Georgia; and Washington,
D.C. See Baroque Art and Architecture.

When Louis
XIV died (1715), changes in the artistic climate
led to the exuberant rococo style. Once again the
work of Italians-notably Guarini and Filippo
Juvarra-provided the basis for a new thrust. The
expression of royal grandeur has survived in
Paris’s Place de la Concorde (begun 1753) by
Jacques Ange Gabriel and the great axis and plazas
(1751-59) by Hr de Corny at Nancy. A more intimate
and personal expression appears in Gabriel’s Petit
Trianon (1762-64) at Versailles. Rococo came to
full flower, however, in Bavaria and Austria. The
Austrian Benedictine Abbey (1748-54) at Ottobeuren
by Johann Michael Fischer is only one of a
brilliant series of spectacular churches,
monasteries, and palaces that includes Balthasar
Neumann’s opulent Vierzehnheiligen (Church of the
Fourteen Saints, 1743-72) near Bamberg, Germany,
and the Amalienburg Pavilion (1734-39) by the
Flemish-born Bavarian architect Franois de
Cuvillis in the park at Nymphenburg near Munich.
The many elaborate colonial churches found
throughout Central and South America attest to the
power and influence of the Roman Catholic church
during baroque and rococo times.

They include
cathedrals in Mexico City, Guanajuato, and Oaxaca
de Jurez, Mexico; Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala;
Quito, Ecuador; Ouro Prto, Brazil; and Cuzco,
Peru; as well as such northern missions as Sant’
Xavier del Bac in Tucson, Arizona, and the chain
of missions on the California coast. The Spanish
architect Jos Churriguera developed an extremely
elaborate decorative style that, transferred to
Latin America and somewhat debased, was given the
name Churrigueresque. See Latin American Art and
Architecture. In many countries of northern Europe
the elegance and dignity attainable through
adherence to classic rules of composition retained
appeal, while in central and southern Europe and
Scandinavia, baroque and rococo ran their course.
In England, the duke of Marlborough’s great
Blenheim Palace, designed (1705) by Sir John
Vanbrugh, emulated in rougher and reduced form the
grandeur of Versailles. A renewed interest in
Palladio and his follower Inigo Jones emerged.
Development of the resort city of Bath gave
opportunities to John Wood and his son to apply
Palladian classicism to the design of Queen’s
Square (1728), the Circus (1754-70), and finally
the great Royal Crescent (1767-75), in all of
which the individual houses were made to conform
to an encompassing classic order. Robert Adam
popularized classicism, expressing it notably
through delicate stucco ornamentation.

scholarship became more precise, and true Greek
architecture-including such pure examples of Doric
as the Parthenon-became known to architects
through the 1762 publication by James Stuart and
Nicholas Revett of Antiquities of Athens. These
developments reinforced the grip of neoclassicism
in England, and the resulting type of architecture
became popularly known as the Georgian style. In
what was to become the northeastern United States,
Peter Harrison and Samuel McIntire took their cues
from English architects in their own version of
Georgian architecture, which was called Federal
after the United States won independence. In the
Southeast, with an aristocracy predominantly
rural, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Latrobe, and
others derived their building style more directly
from Palladio. Jefferson, whose early virtuosity
had been demonstrated in Monticello (1770-84), was
also moved by ancient Rome, and placed a version
(1817-26) of the Pantheon at the head of his
magnificent Lawn at the University of Virginia.
See Neoclassical Art and Architecture. The
Industrial Revolution, which began in England
about 1760, led to radical changes at every level
of civilization throughout the world.

The growth
of heavy industry brought a flood of new building
materials-such as cast iron, steel, and glass-with
which architects and engineers devised structures
hitherto undreamed of in function, size, and form.
Disenchantment with baroque, with rococo, and even
with neo-Palladianism turned late 18th-century
designers and patrons toward the original Greek
and Roman prototypes. Selective borrowing from
another time and place became fashionable. Its
Greek aspect was particularly strong in the young
United States from the early years of the 19th
century until about 1850. New settlements were
given Greek names-Syracuse, Ithaca, Troy-and Doric
and Ionic columns, entablatures, and pediments,
mostly transmuted into white-painted wood, were
applied to public buildings and important town
houses in the style called Greek Revival. In
France, the imperial cult of Napoleon steered
architecture in a more Roman direction, as seen in
the Church of the Madeleine (1807-42), a huge
Roman temple in Paris. French architectural
thought had been jolted at the turn of the century
by the highly imaginative published projects of
tienne-Louis Boulle and Claude Nicholas Ledoux.
These men were inspired by the massive aspects of
Egyptian and Roman work, but their monumental (and
often impractical) compositions were innovative,
and they are admired today as visionary

The most original architect in England
at the time was Sir John Soane; the museum he
built as his own London house (1812-13) still
excites astonishment for its inventive romantic
virtuosity. Late English neoclassicism came to be
seen as elitist; thus, for the new Houses of
Parliament the authorities insisted on Gothic or
Tudor Revival. The appointed architect, Sir
Charles Barry, was not a Gothic expert, but he
called into consultation an architect who was-A.
W. N. Pugin, who became responsible for the
details of this vast monument (begun 1836). Pugin,
in a short and contentious career, made a moral
issue out of a return to the Gothic style.

architects, however, felt free to select whatever
elements from past cultures best fitted their
programs-Gothic for Protestant churches, baroque
for Roman Catholic churches, early Greek for
banks, Palladian for institutions, early
Renaissance for libraries, and Egyptian for
cemeteries. In the second half of the 19th century
dislocations brought about by the Industrial
Revolution became overwhelming. Many were shocked
by the hideous new urban districts of factories
and workers’ housing and by the deterioration of
public taste among the newly rich. For the new
modes of transportation, canals, tunnels, bridges,
and railroad stations, architects were employed
only to provide a cultural veneer. The Crystal
Palace (1850-51; reconstructed 1852-54) in London,
a vast but ephemeral exhibition hall, was the work
of Sir Joseph Paxton, a man who had learned how to
put iron and glass together in the design of large
greenhouses. It demonstrated a hitherto
undreamed-of kind of spatial beauty, and in its
carefully planned building process, which included
prefabricated standard parts, it foreshadowed
industrialized building and the widespread use of
cast iron and steel.

See Crystal Palace. Also
important in its innovative use of metal was the
great tower (1887-89) of Gustave Alexandre Eiffel
in Paris. In general, however, the most gifted
architects of the time sought escape from their
increasingly industrialized environment by further
development of traditional themes and eclectic
styles. Two contrasting but equally brilliantly
conceived examples are Charles Garnier’s sumptuous
Paris Opra (1861-75) and Henry Hobson Richardson’s
grandiose Trinity Church (1872-77) in Boston. At
the turn of the century, designers appeared who
refused to work in borrowed styles. Antoni Gaud in
Barcelona, Spain, was the most original; his
sinuous Casa Mil (1905-7) and the unfinished
Iglesia di Sagrada Familia (Church of the Holy
Family, 1883-1926) exhibit a search for new
organic structural forms.

His work has some
affinity with the movement called art nouveau,
which had been inaugurated contemporaneously in
Brussel and Paris. Charles Rennie Mackintosh,
whose masterpiece is the Glasgow School of Art
(1898-99), espoused a more austere version of art
nouveau. The Chicago architect Louis Sullivan, in
his Wainwright Building (1890-91) in St. Louis,
Missouri, his Guaranty Building (1895) in Buffalo,
New York, and his Carson Pirie Scott Department
Store (1899-1904) in Chicago, gave new expressive
form to urban commercial buildings. His career
converges with the so-called Chicago School of
architects, whose challenge was to invent the
skyscraper or high-rise building, facilitated by
the introduction of the electric elevator and the
sudden abundance of steel. They made a successful
transition from the masonry bearing wall to the
steel frame, which assumed all the load-bearing

The building’s skeleton could be
erected quickly and.

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