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University for Peace Universidad para la Paz Master of Arts in International Peace Studies UPEACE Program in South East Asia, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East (UPSAM) Sustainable Development and Peace Sarweswaran Arulanantham Advisors Mirian Vilela and Alicia Cabezudo July, 2009 This curriculum is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, International Peace Studies ii iii Acknowledgements

I am greatly indebted to my course supervisor Professor Mirian Vilela- Executive Director, Earth Charter International Secretariat and Earth Charter for Education for Sustainable Development at UPEACE- for her encouragement and guidance in the development of this curriculum. I am very grateful to my pedagogy advisor Professor Alicia Cabezudo- Pedagogy Consultant of the UPSAM Program at UPEACE, UNESCO Chair at University of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Consultant on Global Education for the Council of Europe- for her guidance in the development of the pedagogy part of this curriculum.

I am also grateful to Professor Victoria Fontan- Associate Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies MA Program at the University for Peace- and UPSAM Project Leader and Professor Eliana Carvalho- Professor in the Peace Education MA Program at the University for Peace- for conducting workshops in curriculum development which enhanced my skills in preparation of this curriculum. I would like to express my gratitude to all professors who taught and guided me by imparting their knowledge and expertise to complete the Masters Program successfully. I am indebted to the editing team for editing this curriculum with care and patience.

It also has contributed to enhance the quality of the work. I am particularly indebted to the Dutch government and the people from the Netherlands for funding through the UPSAM program for my program of study. iv Dedication To the memory of my father Sangarapillai Arulanantham who inspired the value of peace within me from my childhood.

In The Judicial Application of Human Rights Law: National, Regional and International Jurisprudence. (Front page). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1 8 COURSE SYLLABUS 1. Course title Sustainable Development and Peace 2. Introduction to the course For many years the world perceived development solely as economic growth. Around the 1980’s, this understanding started to change as this narrow approach to development generated many challenges including environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources, poverty, social disparities, social exclusions, social injustices and disempowerment.

These challenges led to many conflicts at international, regional and national levels. The challenges and conflicts that were generated by this conventional and narrow approach to development are now perceived by many as unsustainable developments. The World Commission on Environment and Development published its report entitled “Our Common Future” in 1987. The report emphasized the importance of sustainable development for the survival of present and future generations in the planet. The report focused on economic growth, environmental protection and social development as three dimensions of sustainable development.

Sustainable development was one of the main focuses of many international conferences held during the last decades. The significant conferences were the Earth Summit on Environment and Development in 1992 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21 were outcomes of the Earth Summit, and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development was one of the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

Principles relating to sustainable development have been incorporated into many international conventions and declarations relating environmental protection and social development. These international instruments cast obligations to promote sustainable development at global, regional and national level. As Sri Lanka is a state party to most of these international instruments, Sri Lanka also has international obligations to promote sustainable development.

South Asia has many challenges including poverty, population growth, gender inequality, environmental degradation and violent conflicts to promote sustainable 9 development. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are the two important organizations to promote different aspects of sustainable development at the regional level. Issues relating to sustainable development have become an important focus of many programs of these two regional organizations.

In the light of these developments at international and regional levels, sustainable development has become an important focus in Sri Lanka too. Sri Lanka is a developing country and strives to develop with many challenges. Many of the country’s development initiatives including industrialization, agriculture, fisheries, tourism and infrastructure are promoted by the government and are primarily driven by economic growth. These developmental initiatives have inherent threats to environmental protection and social development and as such, are based on unsustainable models of development.

In Sri Lanka, many developmental activities and exploitation of resources have already generated conflicts and become a threat to peace. This is due to a fragmented approach and short-term vision of development. These activities cause adverse impacts including pollution, depletion of resources, displacement of people and social problems. Therefore, it becomes important to ensure that developmental activities do not become a threat to environmental protection and social development, and deprive the developmental opportunities of the present and future generation.

The concept of sustainable development which strives to strike a balance between economic, environmental and social dimensions emerges as an important concept. Aspects of sustainable development have been incorporated into many legislations and have become a legal requirement for all major developmental activities in Sri Lanka. Donor agencies also stipulate conditions to incorporate the concept of sustainable development into developmental activities.

Civil society in Sri Lanka is also actively promoting sustainable development and sensitizing people on the importance of sustainable development. Many academic institutions also have included some aspects of sustainable development in their courses relating to development. In this context, this course on sustainable development and peace emerges as one of the most important courses for the academics and people who work or aspire to work in development-related projects or programs in the government institutions, the private 10 ector, international organizations and non-governmental organizations. Their better understanding of sustainability principles will promote long-term well-being, sustainable development and peace in Sri Lanka. The University of Colombo offers many courses relating to development, environmental protection and social development under the Postgraduate/Masters Peace and Conflict Studies Program and other programs of study. But, this course, having a holistic approach to sustainable development and peace is not yet available as a specific course under any program.

Therefore, this new course introduced under the Postgraduate/Masters in Peace and Conflict Studies Program of the Faculty of Graduate Studies complements the other courses of the Program, and adds value to the other programs of study of the University of Colombo. This course is designed to provide an opportunity to the students in the other relevant programs of study to follow this course if they wish. 3. Description of the course This course has been designed to provide a broad understanding about the concept of sustainable development and its relevance to peace.

The contents of the course cover different aspects of sustainable development and peace, including: the concept of sustainable development; challenges to sustainable development; violent conflicts; human security; ethical aspects; good governance; natural resources; decentralization; sustainable development strategy of Sri Lanka; and education for sustainable development. The contents of the course have been prepared in the context of Sri Lanka. Therefore, issues relating to Sri Lanka will have special attention during the course.

International aspects, regional aspects and experiences of other countries will also be included in the course. 4. Relevance of the course to program of study This course would enhance the knowledge and understanding of the student with regard to development, sustainable development and its nexus to peace by providing a broad understanding through different methods of teaching. The course will also enhance 11 the skills of the students to apply the principles of sustainable development with regard to various types of developmental activities.

As this course provides a broad understanding about sustainable development and peace, particularly looking at the linkages between social, economic, and environmental problems, this course becomes important to follow other courses relating to different types of conflicts in the program of study. 5. (a) Main goal of the course: The main goal of the course is enhancing knowledge, skills, attitudes and values relating to sustainable development and peace, and making the participants envision and participate. promotion of sustainable development and peace. (b) Objectives of the course: ?

Offer a space to reflect, analyse and strengthen students’ understanding on the concept and principles relating to sustainable development and peace. ? Stimulate the understanding regarding the nexus between sustainable development and peace. ? Raise the understanding of the importance of sustainable development and peace. ? Raise awareness of causes and effects of unsustainable development. ? Raise consciousness about being a responsible human being on the planet. ? Raise consciousness about being an active citizen to promote sustainable development and peace in the country. Stimulate people’s participation in the promotion and implementation of sustainable development and peace in the planet. 6. Learning outcomes At the end of the course students will have: ? Developed an understanding of the importance of sustainable development. ? Developed an understanding about the nexus between sustainable development and peace. 12 ? Developed an understanding about the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainable development. ?

Been able to understand and differentiate sustainable practices and unsustainable practices. Explored the challenges to sustainable development and peace at a global and national level. ? Identified how violent conflicts have an impact on the environment, economy and society, and as such in achieving sustainable development. ? Identified how unsustainable development generates conflicts. ? Linked international cooperation with sustainable development and peace at the national level. ? Analyzed sustainability principles in the strategies of Sri Lanka. ? Linked the role of education in promotion of sustainable development and peace. ? Deepened their understanding of theories and concepts relating to sustainable development and peace. They will synthesize their knowledge, skills, attitudes and values in sustainable development and peace with the new learning. ? Enhanced their values with regard to sustainable development and peace. ? Developed their capacities to make suggestions for the promotion of sustainable development and peace. ? Enhanced their skills with regard to application of sustainability principles into developmental activities. ? Developed their abilities to design sustainable development plans and programs. 7. Contents This course encapsulates issues relating to sustainable development and peace.

The modules for the course cover mainly the following topics: ? The Concept of Development and Sustainable Development. ? Challenges to Sustainable Development and Peace. ? Violent Conflicts and Sustainable Development. ? Human Security, Sustainable Development and Peace. 13 ? Human Rights, Sustainable Development and Peace. ? Ethical Aspects, Sustainable Development and Peace. ? Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Peace. ? Decentralization, Sustainable Development and Peace. ? Developing Countries, Sustainable Development and Peace. ? International Cooperation, Sustainable Development and Peace. Sustainable Development Strategy of Sri Lanka. ? Education for Sustainable Development and Peace.

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