Behavioral Curriculum Model Susan McIntosh CE420: Curriculum Development Professor Katherine Berry October 20, 2012 Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select — doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. –John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
Behaviorism is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behavior is acquired through conditioning (Behaviorism, 2012). I will address how behavioral perspective connects to early childhood theory. I will also discuss if the behavioral model is supported by current breakthroughs in brain research, relevant current trends and best practices used in private and community schools. I will then explain how the behavioral model support best practices like DAP and maximizes student development in the Cognitive, Language, Affective, Aesthetic, Physical, and Social domains.
Finally, I will conclude by either defending the curriculum model or questioning it based on my examination. We know that human beings are creatures of habit and studying past behavior patterns of humans in a given situation helps to anticipate future behavior in a similar situation (Answers, 2012). Behavior perspective connects to early childhood theory in several different ways. One way is that researchers have shown that deficits in language development, such as specific language impairment are related to deficits in various psychosocial outcomes.
B. F. Skinner studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can be used to follow behavior. The first response is the neutral operant which is the responses from the environment the neither increases or decreases the probability of a behavior being repeated. The second response is the reinforcers which are the responses from the environment that increases the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can either be negative or positive.
The third response is the punisher which is the response from the environment that decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior. Skinner showed how positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior. Skinner also showed how negative reinforcement worked and could also strengthen behavior when an unpleasant reinforce was removed (McLeod, 2007). John B. Watson coined the term “Behaviorism” in 1913. Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events.
There are events that precede and follow behavior. The goal of behaviorism is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). Watson stated in his autobiographical sketch ‘I never wanted to use human subjects. I hated to serve as a subject. I didn’t like the stuffy, artificial instructions given to subjects. I always was uncomfortable and acted unnaturally. With animals I was at home. If felt that, in studying them, I was keeping close to biology with my feet on the ground.
More and more the thought presented itself; can’t I find out by watching their behavior everything that the other students are finding out by using [human subjects]? ”(Watson, 1913). There are seven different areas that brain research will shift the current behavioral orientation of teaching and learning. The first area is brain imaging which is a relatively recent development of neuro-imaging technologies escalated the scientific study of our brain and cognition. The second area is the mirroring system which is parental genetic information combines to provide a developing embryo with the necessary bodybuilding directions.
The third area is called the plastic brain which changes occur in the organization of our brain at the cellular and network levels whenever we learn, remember and forget. The forth area is called arousing phenomena which is where emotion and attention are our brain’s activation system, in that are brain will only respond to emotionally arousing phenomena. The fifth area is called hemispheric specialization which is where the cerebrum at the top of our brain processes conscious thought and behavior. The sixth area is called the arts and humanities which effectively incorporate the urricular mix in that they combine the best representations of our cultural history and the creative explorations of new cultural challenges. The seven and final area is called conscious learning which provides us with a unified sense of self, a subjective awareness of our existence and of the environment we inhabit (Sylwester, 2012). Trend is a pattern of gradual change in a condition, output, or process, or an average or general tendency of a series of data points to move in a certain direction over time, represented by a line or curve on a graph (Dictionary, 2012).
There are several different current trends that are related to behavior models. The first current trend would have to be the use of the internet or social media as a teaching tool. This is great way for students to find information that they are looking for to help them to excess in school. Another current trend is for the teacher to pay close attention to each student’s needs. Educators are looking at their class as a collection; they seem them as individuals who have different needs.
Another current trend in students teaching teachers which is that students perform better when they have the opportunity to tell the teacher what things in the classroom needs improvement. Finally, how the condition of education facilities affect performance which means the better the building’s condition, the better the students and the teachers perform (Teachnology, 2012). There are several best practices that are used in private and community schools that regard behavior. The first one is that students are acknowledged for demonstrating expected behavior.
Another is that consistent consequences are applied for inappropriate behavior across staff and settings. Another is that data on student behavior are collected and used to inform and improve the behavioral system. Another is that all staff understands and implements the school-wide discipline system with fidelity. Finally schools receive support at district level in implementing positive school-wide discipline system (NYSED, 2012). Cognitive is pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes (Dictionary, 2012).
Social cognitive theory refers to a psychological model of behavior that emerged from the work of Albert Bandura. It was initially with an emphasis on social behavior, SCT continue to emphasize that learning occurs in a social context and that much of what was learned was gained through observation. SCT rests on several basic assumptions about learning and behavior. One assumption concerns the view that personal, behavioral, and environmental factors influence one another. Another assumption is that people have the ability to influence their own behavior and the environment in a purposeful way.
The final assumption is that learning can occur without an immediate change in behavior (Denler, Wolton, ;amp; Benzon, 2012). Language is a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition (Dictionary, 2012). Some behaviors that a common with children beginning to acquire another language that may be misinterpreted as challenging behavior would be no talking, difficulty following directions, difficulty expressing ideas and feelings, and difficulty responding to questions consistently.
Social interaction can affect language by the way that they learn to communicate with others. Affective describes something that evokes feelings. It also describes emotional actions or actions driven by feelings (YourDictionary, 2012). There are several different things that affect behavior. The first way is that negative or positive emotions can affect behavior. Another way is how our attitude can affect our behavior can affect our goals, aspirations, and our expected responses to things. Finally, how one person’s behavior can affect another person’s behavior in either a negative or positive way.
Aesthetic domain is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and expression of beauty, as in the fine arts (FreeDictionary, 2012). Thomas Malthus had an enormous influence on the developmental of environmental ethnic through his theory about population growth There are several different ways of how aesthetic can affect behavior. The first way was that Malthus believed that if the natural forces of war, famine, and disease did not reduce the rate of growth of the human population, it would increase to the point where it could not be sustained by natural resources.
Theodore Roosevelt was at the forefront of the conservation movement that developed in America. Another way was when the country’s natural resources where threatened, like the diminishing stocks of forests, rangeland water, and mineral resources (Environmental Ethnic, 2012). Physical domain always refers to the physiological changes that happen in the body. These changes include both your manipulative (small) and gross (large motor skills. Which are both apart of sensory motor development. It also includes include how we see, taste, and hear which happen to be part of the nervous system development.
Physical development can definitely affect behavior we need to use positive behavior supports like treating each other with compassion and respect. We need to help each other during difficult times. We need to not use negative behavior supports like using physical contact in a way that could cause damage to someone else. We need to also remember to use the old adages “Treat others the way you want to be treated. ” Social domain is the pattern or process of change exhibited by individuals resulting from their interaction with other individuals, social institutions, social customs, etc (Social Development, 2012).
Social development can support behavior in both a positive and negative way. One of the positive ways that social development can support behavior is on how we treat each other. If we treat each other with respect, than we need to be treated with the same respect. We need to treat each other with the same love that we get from God. God knows what we are going to do before we actually do it and he still loves us no matter what. One of the negative ways to be disrespectful to others and to want to do things that can be harmful.
God does not want us to hurt each other because he considers all of us as his sons and daughters and he does not like it when one of his children is being hurt. I would definitely defend the behavioral model because I feel that everything you do in this world depends on our behavior. I have learned that all of the different models depend on each other to make the reading process be so successful. The saying that I heard from my grandparents, parents, teachers and the same saying that I even use on my children, grandchildren, and students would be “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you”.
This saying is from the bible Matthew 7:12. I have always understood this to mean that if you want to be treated with kindness and respect than you need to treat others in the same manner. I have addressed how the behavioral model connects to early childhood theory. I also discussed how the behavioral model was supported by current breakthroughs in brain research, relevant current trends and best practices used in private and community schools. I have also explained how the behavioral model supported best practices like in the Cognitive, Language, Affective, Aesthetic, Physical, and Social domains.
Finally, I addressed why I defended the behavioral model. Plato said “Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, motion, and knowledge”. References Aesthetics – definition of aesthetics. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. yourdictionary. com Affective/Easy to Understand Definition of Affective. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. yourdictionary. com Aro, T. , Eklund, K. , Nurmi, J. , ;amp; Poikkeus, A. (2012). Early Language and Behavioral Regulation Skills as Predictors of Social Outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language ;amp; Hearing Research, 55(2), 395-408. doi:10. 044/1092-4388(2011/10-0245) BEHAVIOR SUPPORT GUIDELINES: For Support Workers Paid With Developmental Services Funds. (2004). Retrieved from http://www. ddas. vermont. gov Current Trends in Education. (2012). Retrieved from www. teach-nology. com Define Cognitive. (2012). Retrieved from www. dictionary. com Define Language. (2012). Retrieved from www. dictionary. com Denler, H. , Wolton, C. , ;amp; Benzon, M. (2012). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from www. education. com Environmental Ethics – Key Issues, Environmental Attitudes. (2012). Retrieved from http://science. rank. org Jarosik, J. J. , Legutko, B. B. , Werner, S. S. , Unsicker, K. K. , ;amp; von Bohlen und Halbach, O. O. (2011). Roles of exogenous and endogenous FGF-2 in animal models of depression. Restorative Neurology ;amp; Neuroscience, 29(3), 153-165 McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner- Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from www. simplepsychology. org Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guides for Behavioral Supports and Interventions – Positive Behavioral Systems. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. p12. nysed. gov Physical – Medical Definition and More from Merriam-Webster/ (2012).
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