Rise of Islam and East Asia (Chapter 14 and 15) 1. Discuss the following with regards to Islam: A. FOUNDING: Islam was founded by Muhammad when he received word from Allah in a prophecy (or vision). He began life in Mecca where idolatry was a main fact of life but had to flee to Madinah to escape prosecution in what has come to be known as the Hijrah. Islam spread through his family and friends at first but later his companions known as sahabat continued his work by a number of successful conquests which spread Islam to most of the middle east.
Islam reached it high point when Muhammad and his army from Madinah conquered Mecca which was later deemed to the the Holy City. B. BELIEFS: 1) Daily prayer (Salat), 2) Donating to poor (Zakkat), 3) Visiting Mecca (Pilgramage) (Hajj), 4) Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan (Siam) 5)There is one God (Allah) (Shahada) Muhammad is the last prophet of God in a series of prophets beginning with Adam since the start of the earth. God is monotheistic, an undivided God. Jesus was only a prophet, a mere man, not God nor the Son of God. He did not die on the cross, but arose into heaven by the will of God.
The Qur’an is the last book of God given to Muhammad through the Holy Spirit (or angel Gabriel) that is not corrupt unlike the Torah, Psalms, and gospels of Jesus. On the day of resurrection, God will assign each person heaven or hell based upon their deeds in this life. C. EXPANSION: After the prophet Muhammad’s death many desert nomads and others claimed to be prophets, during this time Abu Bakr went to war with these people to prove them as false. After Abu Bakr, Umr took over Persia, and other parts of Asia Minor, after many years Tariq bin Ziyad took over Spain and Islam slowly traveled though Europe. D. LEADERS: DI.
ABU BAKR: Closest friend and companion of Muhammad and the first Muslim caliph. He was one of the first men to convert to Islam, and was chosen by the Prophet as his companion on the hijrah to Medina. Helped compile the Quaran from Muhammad’s sayings. Dar al-Islam appeared after his death. Led many wars of conquest and invasions leading to the expansion of Islam. Was in the Sunni’s favor. DII. ALI: Shiite’s pick for Muhammad’s successor. the second person to belief in the teachings of Mohammed. A close associate and adviser of Mohammed all his life, Ali was renowned as a pious man, an honest judge, a warrior, and a leader.
E. HIJRA: The exodus of Mohammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622. F. HAJJ: The fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. It lays out the goal of each Muslim performing a pilgrimage to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba and to rededicate themselves to Allah at sites important in his life. G. ROLE OF WOMEN: Islam gave women rights and privileges at a time when only barbaric manners and values dominated. Women are considered crucial members of society in Islam since they are assigned the job of bringing up future generations and sometimes financial control.
They could legally inherit land, divorce husbands on their own initiative and engage in business venture. H. DAR AL-ISLAM: HI. WHAT DOES THE TERM MEAN: It’s the part of the world under Islamic control. The opposite of Dar al-Garb ( the house of war ) which comprises all those not yet forced to convert to Islam. HII. AGRICULTURE: Included staple crops such as sugar cane, rice, new vegetable and fruit; industrial crops such as cotton, indigo and henna. These new crops led to a richer and more varied diet. More food because they could extend their growing seasons.
Travel and communication encouraged experimentation. Paid very close attention to fertilization, crop rotation and outlined their findings in hundreds or agricultural manuals. Increased economic growth. Increased production led to the rapid growth of Islamic cities. HIII. INDUSTRY: Their new industrial crops had important uses in the textile and clothing industry. Extremely agricultural economy. Islamic cities had flourishing markets supporting thousands of artists, craftsmen and merchants; important centers pf textiles pottery, glassware, leather, iron, steel and other industrial productions.
Paper manufacturers appeared in Islamic cities during the Abbasid era. Originally from China. Didn’t spread until the Arab’s beat them at the battle of the Talas River in 751 and took prisoners skilled in the art of making paper. Was very cheap. Kept records of administrative and commercial activities. By the tenth century paper productions were in Persia, Mesopotamia, Arabia, Egypt and, Spain, soon spreading to western Europe. Banking also stimulated the economy. HV. ECONOMY AND TRADE: Economy was previously mentioned in HII and HIII.
Trade routes were established through the arid lands of Asia. The camel adapted well to the conditions and became the ” ship of the desert” . The animal was used to establish trade routes throughout North Africa as well. Merv, Nishapur, Bakhara, and Samarkand were well established commercial trade centers. Used the Silk Roads from China to the Mediterranean in the west. Umayyd and Abbasid rulers maintained the roads. Roads were also used for pilgrims and missionaries. Traded mostly by caravans by camels. Maratime trade occurred in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Borrowed the compass from China. Borrowed the triangular sail from southeast Asian and Indian mariners. Borrowed the astrolobe (a device used to calculate latitude) from the Hellenistic Mediterranean. Dinars were the currency in the Islamic world. Ramisht was a wealthy twelfth century merchant from Persia. Founded a hospital and religious sanctuary in Mecca, and outfitted the Ka’ba (large cubical structure in Masjid al-Haram, a mosque in Mecca) with a Chinese silk cover that reportedly cost him eighteen thousand dinars.
Banks were lending money to entrepreneurs and let also served as brokers for investments and exchanged all different currencies. Established sakk- the rook for “check. ” Let merchants deal without using cash. Usually traveled in groups. HVI. AL-ANDALUS: The prosperity of Islamic Spain. Illustrated the far-reaching effects of long distance trade during the Abbasid era. HVII. INFLUENCE OF INDIA ON ISLAMIC THOUGHT: Indian mathematics grabbed the attention of places in the Dar al-Islam. Muslims found it attractive for both educational purposes and accounting.
They adopted “Indian numerals,” which was later called the “Arab numerals,” since they learned it from the Arabian Muslims. Completely simplified bookkeeping. HVIII. ARCHITECTURE: Mosques in the old days were decorated beautifully with calligraphy and tile. They also had their own kind of domes that they used on the most important buildings. Used minarets. The specific geometric forms decorating the walls (known as Arabesque) represent the infinite. HIX: INFLUENCE OF CHINA ISLAMIC EMPIRE: Persia fell under Islam at an early date, especially after the Abbasid dynasty and the founding of it’s capital Baghdad.
Persian traditions deeply influenced Islamic political and cultural leaders. Persian administrative techniques were crucial for the organization of the Imperial structure through which the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers governed their vast empires. Their ideas of kingship influenced Islamic political thought. Muslim caliphs acted upon it well. Their influence is also present in Islamic literary works from the Abbasid dynasty. Persian was the staple language of most literary work, historical and political reflection. Persians displayed high rates of originality and elegance. HX.
UMAYYAD DYNASTY: After the death of Mohammed in 632 AD, the leadership of the new religion, and of the newly united Arab tribes, was taken over by Mohammed’s upper-class father-in-law (through his second wife) Abu Bakr. Mohammed left no sons, and in any case there was no tradition of sons taking over in the Arab world. Abu Bakr only lived for two years after becoming Caliph, but he managed to unite the whole Arabian Peninsula under Islam. There was a rebellion of the Arab tribes after Mohammed’s death, which is called the Ridda. With their leader gone, they wanted to go back to being independent.
Abu Bakr took an army and succeeded in destroying the Ridda and bringing those Arab tribes back under Islamic control. Almost immediately after becoming the Caliph, or ruler, in 634 AD, the second Caliph Umar led Arab raids into both the Roman and the Sassanid empires. Both were surprisingly successful. Apparently both the Romans and the Sassanians were much weaker than the Arabs thought they were. Umar was assassinated in 644 AD, and succeeded by Uthman. Encouraged by these early victories, Uthman and his army organized a real campaign, and by 651 AD they took over most of Western Asia, from the Mediterranean coast to eastern Iran.
Uthman was assassinated in 656, and succeeded by Ali, who had a somewhat more radical view of the Islamic faith. Under Ali, the soldiers of the Islamic Empire fought their way through Egypt and North Africa, and although Ali was assassinated in 661, the armies continued and then crossed the Straits of Gibraltar to attack Spain in 710 AD. Kairouan, the fourth holy city of Islam, was founded in the late 600’s AD. As the Arabs made their way through North Africa, they built small forts to guard against attack, especially along the coast. These forts are called Ribats. Many of them are still there today.
After the death of Ali, there was a bitter religious and political struggle between the followers of a more traditional Islamic faith, who were called Sunnis, and the more radical followers of Ali, who were called Shiites. The Sunnis won, and established the Umayyad dynasty, with its capital at Damascus in Syria. In Jerusalem, the Umayyads built the first major mosque, the Dome of the Rock, on the site of Solomon’s Temple (and the place where Abraham almost sacrificed Isaac). They began building it in 687 AD and finished it in 691 AD. The Umayyad advance was eventually stopped in several places.
In the West, the Romans stopped Islamic attacks against Constantinople in 674-678 and again in 717 AD. The Frank Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne, turned back a series of Islamic raids into France in 732 AD. In the East, the Islamic Empire came up against the Tang Dynasty Chinese, who were also expanding their empire at this time. Though the Arabs won a great battle against the Chinese in 751, near Samarkand in Central Asia, the border stayed about the same from then on. 2. DISCUSS THE SPLIT BETWEEN THE ISLAM. WHAT ARE THE ISSUES? WHAT WAS THE OUTCOME? Ali is the central figure at the origin of the Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet in 632. Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth and last of the “rightly guided caliphs” (successors to Mohammed (pbuh) as leader of the Muslims) following on from Abu Bakr 632-634, Umar 634-644 and Uthman 644-656. Shias feel that Ali should have been the first caliph and that the caliphate should pass down only to direct descendants of Mohammed (pbuh) via Ali and Fatima, They often refer to themselves as ahl al bayt or “people of the house” [of the prophet].
When Uthman was murdered while at prayer, Ali finally succeeded to the caliphate. Ali was, however, opposed by Aisha, wife of the Prophet (pbuh) and daughter of Abu Bakr, who accused him of being lax in bringing Uthman’s killers to justice. After Ali’s army defeated Aisha’s forces at the Battle of the Camel in 656, she apologized to Ali and was allowed to return to her home in Madinah where she withdrew from public life. However, Ali was not able to overcome the forces of Mu’awiya Ummayad, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Damascus, who also refused to recognize him until Uthman’s killers had been apprehended.
At the Battle of Suffin Mu’awiya’s soldiers stuck verses of the Quran onto the ends of their spears with the result that Ali’s pious supporters refused to fight them. Ali was forced to seek a compromise with Mu’awiya, but this so shocked some of his die-hard supporters who regarded it as a betrayal that he was struck down by one of his own men in 661. Mu’awiya declared himself caliph. Ali’s elder son Hassan accepted a pension in return for not pursuing his claim to the caliphate. He died within a year, allegedly poisoned. Ali’s younger son Hussein agreed to put his claim to the caliphate on hold until Mu’awiya’s death.
However, when Mu’awiya finally died in 680, his son Yazid usurped the caliphate. Hussein led an army against Yazid but, hopelessly outnumbered, he and his men were slaughtered at the Battle of Karbala (in modern day Iraq). Hussein’s infant son, Ali, survived so the line continued. Yazid formed the hereditary Ummayad dynasty. The division between the Shia and what came to be known as the Sunni was set. 3. WHAT ARE THE DIFFRENCES BETWEEN THE SUNNI AND THE SHIA? Sunni are the the followers of the Sunna (practice) of the prophet Muhammad. Shiaism was made many years after the death of the prophet.
Islam is pure Monotheism. Muslims (Sunnis) ask for every thing directly to God only without making any one intermediary. Calling out, invoking, crying out, making duaa to are all MANIFESTATIONS of worship that should ONLY be directed towards Allah. However Shia call (invoke) besides Allah, which is not pure monotheism (polytheism). They ask Ali or Hussein for help rather than asking Allah. The Sunnis say that Islam has been completed in the time of the prophet and they are following his way. Shias say no we have to follow the 12 Imams who are of the progeny of Ali.
They believe those 12 Imams are infallible and have significant powers. 4. DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING WITH REGARDS TO THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES: A. FOUNDING: AI. TANG: Founded by Tang. Based on a peaceful society. Early success due to that, great following because of that. Governmental reforms, intended to strengthen the internal government by centralizing, with a large civil service, and large territory expansion. AII. SONG: Founded by Song but never established a strong political state which became a problem later. Centralized bureaucratic system employing scholar-officials.
Civil bureaucrats dominated every aspect of Song government and society. This system led to a greater concentration of power in the emperor than had been seen in previous dynasties. B. EXPANSION: BI. TANG: Expanded through political and diplomatic means. It had an appealing government. BII. SONG: C. LEADERS: BI. TANG: BII. SONG: D. ROLE OF WOMEN: DII. TANG: a time of relative freedom for women. They did not bind their feet nor lead submissive lives. It was a time in which a number of exceptional women contributed in the areas of culture and politics. DII.
SONG: Although women were on a lower social tier than men, they enjoyed many social and legal privileges and wielded considerable power at home and in their own small businesses. As Song society became more and more prosperous and parents on the bride’s side of the family provided larger dowries for her marriage, women naturally gained many new legal rights in ownership of property. They were also equal in status to men in inheriting family property. There were many notable and well-educated women and it was a common practice for women to educate their sons during their earliest youth. E.
AGRICULTURE: EI. TANG: Flourished. A system of equal land allotments to the male population increased agriculture production that was the backbone of a prosperous farming civilization. Had powerful army was composed of volunteer farmer-soldiers. Had many revolutions involving plows and animals. Advances in agriculture and irrigation doubled harvests is some provinces. Increased harvests brought increased populations EII. SONG: Advanced farming techniques increased crop production. Development of early-ripening rice which allowed peasants to grow two or three crops annually on the same field.
Growing cotton was widely practiced during the 12th century. Technology for making ceramics achieved its highest peak in ancient China F. INDUSTRY: FI. TANG: With a friendly foreign policy and use of the Silk Road, trade with more than seventy countries flourished, which also brought foreigners with new technologies and ideas, such as astronomy and mathematics. Discovered ways to make high-quality porcelain, now known as Chinaware. Lots of metallurgy and gunpowder and printing. FII. SONG: The Song Dynasty’s major exports were silk, porcelain and tea.
The improvement of shipbuilding and the use of the compass allowed for a far reaching and flourishing maritime trade with Asia and the Middle East, on a sea route that became known as the Marine Silk Route. With the development of the economy, the population began to increase and exceeded over one million during that period. Cities, as centers of administration and trade, began to emerge. Industry such as iron multiplied as much as six times over some two hundred years. Mass produced products included products for agriculture and construction.
During this dynasty the Chinese enhanced gunpowder, the cannon, and flamethrowers. G. INVENTIONS: GI. TANG: Invented of the block print, which encouraged the further spread of literacy, by making writing available to more people. They improved the compass, gunpowder, and silk major export of the Tang’s economic relations. The Tang also started to use a more efficient way of burning, coal; which has never been done before. The Tang also started using porcelain, to make fine china. Not only that, they also improved the irrigation system out in the farm, which created better and more crops.
GII. SONG: Gun powder, cannons, multiple stage rockets, restaurants, tea, noodles and movable-type (printing was invented in China in the 7th century AD. ) Many of these inventions caused huge changes when they were introduced to Europe. Cannons, for example, allowed the castles of feudal lords to be attacked by kings which lead to the rise of central governments. H. ECONOMY AND TADE: HI. TANG: Trade was possible because the Tang maintained a good foreign relation. Tax-free lands, which led it to be the most important economic institution in a local community.
Economy flourished. The Tang Empire traded with, India, Middle East, and Byzantium in the west. This was possible because the Tang maintained relative peace among the different races that traded along the Silk Road. HII. SONG: The improvement of shipbuilding and the use of the compass allowed for a far reaching and flourishing maritime trade with Asia and the Middle East, on a sea route that became known as the Marine Silk Route. With the development of the economy, the population began to increase and exceeded over one million during that period.
Cities, as centers of administration and trade, began to emerge. I. CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS: II. TANG: The government system was supported by intellectuals selected through civil service examinations. This system worked very well and drew the best talent into government. The new political system avoided potential threats from aristocratic families and warlords that enabled the empire to be stable for a remarkably long time. III. SONG: Expanded the civil service examination system to provide a constant flow of talent into civil service positions.
This system led to a greater concentration of power in the emperor than had been seen in previous dynasties. 5. RELIGION – BUDDHISM (SPREAD, IMPACT, DURING TANG EMPIRE); NEO-CONFUCIANISM (WHAT, DURING MING DYNASTY) A. TANG: Buddhism reached its peak during the early Tang Dynasty. Later on, Buddhism declined while Confucianism became dominant. Many Confucian scholar-officials regarded Buddhism’s growing influence on the common people as a threat to the stability of the country. A strong attempt was made to eliminate it. Near the end of the Tang Dynasty, a full-scale persecution of
Buddhism was begun. Many temples were demolished and Buddhists were forced to give up their faith or be killed. B. SONG: Neo-Confucianism came to play a dominant role in the intellectual life of the Song Dynasty. The most influential philosopher of Neo-Confucianism was Zhu Xi whose teaching became the official imperial ideology from late Song times to the late nineteenth century. Neo-Confucianism also came to play a dominant role in the intellectual life of East Asia. Confusions beliefs with Buddhist education. 6. COMPARE ISLAMIC AND CHINESE EMPIRES IN THE POST-CLASSICAL PERIOD.
WHAT DID THEY HAVE IN COMMON? 7. DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING WITH REGARDS TO JAPAN: A. NATIVE RELIGION: Shinto, a polytheist religion focused on worshiping kami, is the native religion of the Japanese. It was also the state religion for a period of time. The kami, or spirits, are broken down into a hierarchy of local, regional, and global spirits. Shinto is animistic, and its followers believe that everything in nature has a spirit of some sort. B. ROLE OF THE WARRIOR IN JAPANESE SOCIETY: They were very prevalent, especially speaking of the samurai’s. They served the lords of Japan.
They were relied on to enforce authority and to extend their claims to other lands. In return they gave the warriors agricultural surpluses and labor services under their jurisdiction. Since they didn’t have to feed, clothe or house themselves or their families, they devoted everything to hunting, riding, archery and martial arts. Lived by “Bushido,” meaning the way of the warrior. When bringing dishonor upon themselves and their country, they reverted to seppuku, ritual suicide by disembowelment, or hara-kiri. In general, took inspiration from the Tang dynasty.