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Anthropology entails 3 perspectives: (1) cross-cultural, or looking at other cultures than our own, (2) holistic, or looking at all parts of culture in relation to each other, (3) relativistic, or looking at each culture as its own standard of values and meaning. 4 disciplines within Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Biological or Physical Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology Boas The early 20th century inaugurated a period of systematic critical examination, and rejection of unilineal theories of cultural evolution.

Cultural anthropologists such as Franz Boas, typically regarded as the leader of anthropology’s rejection of classical social evolutionism, used sophisticated ethnography and more rigorous empirical methods to argue that Spencer, Tylor, and Morgan’s theories were speculative and systematically misrepresented ethnographic data. Additionally, they rejected the distinction between “primitive” and “civilized” (or “modern”), pointing out that so-called primitive contemporary societies have just as much history, and were just as evolved, as so-called civilized societies.

They therefore argued that any attempt to use this theory to reconstruct the histories of non-literate (i. e. leaving no historical documents) peoples is entirely speculative and unscientific. They observed that the postulated progression, which typically ended with a stage of civilization identical to that of modern Europe, is ethnocentric. They also pointed out that the theory assumes that societies are clearly bounded and distinct, when in fact cultural traits and forms often cross social boundaries and diffuse among many different societies (and is thus an important mechanism of change).

Boas in his culture history approach focused on anthropological fieldwork in an attempt to identify factual processes instead of what he criticized as speculative stages of growth. His approach was a major influence on the American anthropology in the first half of the 20th century, and marked a retreat from high-level generalization and “systems building”. The contribution to cultural anthropology by Boas is extraordinary, if not controversial. Three Evolutionary stages are , Savagery, barbarism and civilization. av·agery (-re) noun pl. savageries -·ries 1. the condition of being savage, or wild, primitive, uncultivated, etc. 2. savage act, behavior, or disposition; barbarity bar·ba·rism (bar? b? riz?? m) noun 1. 1. the use of words and expressions not standard in a language 2. a word or expression of this sort (Ex. : “youse” for “you”) 2. the state of being primitive or lacking civilization

3. a barbarous action, custom, etc. 4. brutal behavior; barbarity civi·li·za·tion (siv?? l? za? s? h? n) noun 1. he process of civilizing or becoming civilized 2. the condition of being civilized; social organization of a high order, marked by the development and use of a written language and by advances in the arts and sciences, government, etc. 3. the total culture of a particular people, nation, period, etc. 4. the countries and peoples considered to have reached a high stage of social and cultural development 5. intellectual and cultural refinement 6. the amenities, esp. creature comforts of civilized life

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